Archive for the ‘chronology’ Category

Karunanidhi way of Meddling with Chronology and History – II

January 17, 2010

Karunanidhi way of Meddling with Chronology and History: Part – II

Vedaprakash

In Indian history, there have been instances, where the Mohammedans and Christians had meddled with Indian chronology and history.

In that notorious meddling tradition, the dravidian concoctor, meddler and forger – Karunanidhi has joined and spoliing everything.

I have already pointed out in my earlier posting as to how this senile man has stooped down to concoct the tradition, heritage and civilization:

http://vedaprakash.indiainteracts.com/2008/04/29/karunanidhi-way-of-meddling-with-chronology-and-history/

Karunanidhi way of Meddling with Chronology and History
Published on April 29th, 2008 In Blogging, Careers-Life, Parties, Philosophy, Writing-Poetry, Politics | Views 95

However, he has determined to play mischief, as evidenced from his nonsensical talk made as appearing in “Viduthalai”.

கிருஷ்ணனுக்கும் – நாரதிக்கும் பிறந்த 60 குழந்தைகள் –
தமிழ் ஆண்டுகள் என்றால் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ள முடியுமா?
“தமிழ்ப் புத்தாண்டை”க் கோலாகலமாகக் கொண்டாடுவோம்!

http://files.periyar.org.in/viduthalai/20090116/news02.html

http://files.periyar.org.in/viduthalai/20090116/thalai.html

முதல்வர் கலைஞரின் இன எழுச்சியுரை

சென்னை, ஜன. 16- தைமுதல் நாள் தமிழ்ப் புத்தாண்டுபற்றியும், இதுவரை இருந்துவந்த தமிழ்ப் புத்தாண்டுபற்றியும் முதல்வர் கலைஞர் அவர்கள் எடுத்துரைத்தும், தைமுதல் நாள் புத் தாண்டை சிறப்பாகக் கொண்டாட வேண்டும் என்று வலியுறுத்தியும் இன எழுச்சியுரையாற்றினார்.

கருணாநிதி கலைவாணர் அரங்கத்தில் நடைபெற்ற திருவள்ளுவர் திருநாள் மற்றும் தமிழக அரசின் விருதுகள் வழங்கும் விழாவில், விருது பெறும் ஒவ்வொருவருக்கும் விருதுத் தொகை ஒரு இலட்ச ரூபாய் பொற்கிழி வழங்கி, தங்கப் பதக்கம் அணிவித்துச் சிறப்பு செய்து, சிறந்த நூலாசிரியர்களுக்கும், பதிப்பகத்தார்க்கும் பரிசுகள் வழங்கி, அகவை முதிர்ந்த தமிழறிஞர்களுக்கு நிதியுதவி ஆணைகள் வழங்கி, விழாச் சிறப்புரையாற்றினார்கள். இவ்விழாவில், மாண்புமிகு நிதியமைச்சர் பேராசிரியர் க. அன்பழகன், மாண்புமிகு செய்தித்துறை அமைச்சர் பரிதி இளம்வழுதி மற்றும் முக்கியப் பிரமுகர்கள் கலந்துகொண்டனர்

தமிழ்ப் புத்தாண்டு தொடங்குகின்ற இந்த நாளில் – நேற்றையதினம் புத்தாண்டு – ஏழையெளியவர்களுக்கு எல்லாம் – எல்லோருக்கும் சமத்துவப் பொங்கல் சாப்பிட இந்த அரசின் சார்பாக அவர்களுக்கெல்லாம் தேவையான பொருட்களை வழங்கிய அரசு – இந்த அரசு – இந்தப் புத்தாண்டை இதற்கு முன்பு நாம் கொண்டாடினோம். வருடப் பிறப்பு என்ற பெயரால் கொண்டாடினோம். அந்த வருடப் பிறப்பு எப்படி புத்தாண்டாக மாற நேரிட்டது என்றால் – தந்தை பெரியார் போன்றவர்கள், பேரறிஞர் அண்ணா போன்றவர்கள், புரட்சிக் கவிஞர் பாரதி தாசன் போன்றவர்கள், மறைமலை அடிகளார் போன்றவர்கள், திரு.வி.க. போன்றவர்கள் அத்தனை பேரும் சேர்ந்து – நம்முடைய தமிழனுக்கு ஒரு ஆண்டு வேண்டும், அந்தத் தமிழ் ஆண்டு, புத்தாண்டு தை முதல் நாளாகத் தான் இருக்க முடியும், தை பிறந்தால் வழி பிறக்கும் என்று அந்தச் சொல் வந்ததற்குக் காரணமே, தை பிறந்தால் தான் தமிழனுக்கு, ஏழைக்கு, விவசா யிக்கு, உழவனுக்கு, பாட்டாளிக்கு வாழ்வு பிறக்கின்றது. ஆகவே அந்த நாளை நாம் புத்தாண்டு என்று வைப்போம் என்று வைத்தார்கள். அதற்கு முன்பு இருந்த புத்தாண்டு, வருடப்பிறப்பு – அது வேறு, இது வேறு. அய்யோ, அதை ஒழித்து விட்டீர்களே என்று யாராவது சொன்னால், நீங்கள் கேளுங்கள். நீ எந்த வருடம் பிறந்தாய் என்று – என்னையே கேளுங்கள் -அவர்களுடைய கணக்குப்படி-நான் ரக்தாட்சி வருடம் பிறந்தேன். அப்படியென் றால் இப்போது எனக்கு என்ன வயது? ரக்தாட்சி வருடம் பிறந்த வனுக்கு அட்சய வருடத்தில் என்ன வயது என்று கேட்டால், ரக்தாட்சி, குரோதன, அட்சய – ஒரு வருடம் – ஏனென்றால் அறுபது ஆண்டுகள் – பெயர்கள் சுற்றிக் கொண்டே வரும். பிரபவ, விபவ, சுக்ல, பிரஜோபத்தி, ஆங்கீரச, ஸ்ரீமுக, பவ, யுவ, தாது, ஈஸ்வர, வெகுதான்ய, பிரமாதி, விக்கிரம, விஷூ, சித்திரபானு, சுபானு என்று இப்படி அறுபது ஆண்டுகள் சுற்றிக் கொண்டே வரும். அப்படி சுற்றிக் கொண்டு வரும்போது இந்த அறுபதில், 1924ஆம் ஆண்டு பிறந்த நாள் – இந்த வருடத்தின் சுற்று முடியும் போது – யாராலும் சரியாக வயதைக் கணக்கிட்டுச் சொல்ல முடியாது. 1924இல் பிறந்தவன் என்று சொல்கிற போது, இப்போது என்னுடைய வயது 85 என்று சொல்ல முடியும். எப்படி வந்தது இந்த வருஷம்.? ஒரு நாள் கிருஷ்ணனைப் பார்த்து நகர் வலம் வந்த நாரதர் – கிருஷ்ணா எனக்கொரு ஆசை என்றார். என்ன ஆசை நாரதா என்றார். நான் கதை சொல்லவில்லை. இது திரைக்கதை வசனம் அல்லவே அல்ல. இது திவ்யமான புராணம். அந்தப் புராணத் திலே நாரதர் வீணையோடு வந்து கொண்டிருந்தார். அப்போது கிருஷ்ணனிடம் எனக்கொரு ஆசை, அதை நீ நிறைவேற்ற வேண்டுமென்றார். ஒரு அழகான பெண்ணோடு நான் ஒரு நாளா வது வாழ வேண்டும் என்றார் நாரதர். கிருஷ்ணனுக்கு கோபம் வந்து விட்டது. இவர் யார், நாம் யார்? நம்மைப் பார்த்து இப்படி கேட்கிறாரே என்று, சரி உனக்கு நான் இந்த வரம் தருகிறேன், நீ இந்த ஊரில் எல்லா வீடுகளுக்கும் போ, எந்த வீட்டிலேயாவது அழகான ஒரு பெண் உனக்காக இருந்தால், நீ அவளை ஏற்றுக் கொள்ளத் தடை இல்லை, அவள் உன்னோடு வருவாள், போ என்று அனுப்பி வைத்தார். நாரதர் போனார். ஒவ்வொரு வீட்டி லும் ஒரு புருஷனோடு பெண் இருந்தாளே தவிர, தனியாக ஒரு பெண்கூட இல்லை. திரும்பி வந்தார் நாரதர். ஏன் என்று கிருஷ்ணர் கேட்டார். எல்லா வீடுகளிலும் பெண், ஆணோடு தான் இருக்கிறாள், அதனால் எனக்கேற்ற பெண் எங்கும் கிடைக்கவில்லை, என்னை விரும்புகிற பெண்ணையே காணவில்லை என்றார். சரி என்ன செய்யச் சொல்றே? நானே பெண்ணாக ஆகி விடுகிறேன், நீ ஆணாக இருந்து என்னை சந்தோஷப்படுத்து என்று நாரதர் கிருஷ்ணனைக் கேட்கிறார்.

ஒரே நாளில் 60 பிள்ளைகள்

சரி உன் இஷ்டப்படியே ஆகட்டும் என்று நாரதரைப் பெண்ணாக்கி, நாரதர், நாரதியாகி – கிருஷ்ணன் நாரதர் இரண்டு பேரும் சந்தோஷமாக இருந்து – அதைத் தான் படம் பார்த்திருப்பீர்கள் – பல ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்பு திரைப்படம் வந்தது – பாட்டிகளுக்கெல்லாம் தெரியும் – கிருஷ்ணன் நாரதி என்று படமே வந்தது. நான் பொய் சொல்லவில்லை. அவர்கள் இருவருக்கும் சேர்ந்து 60 பிள்ளைகள் பிறந்தன. கடவுளுடைய காதல் அல்லவா? அவர்கள் இருவருக்கும் ஒரே நாளில் அறுபது பிள்ளைகள் பிறந்தன. அந்த அறுபது பிள்ளைகளுக்கும் வைத்த பெயர்கள் தான் பிரபவ, விபவ, சுக்ல என்று ஆரம்பித்து அட்சய வரையிலே உள்ள வருடங்களின் பெயர்கள். அந்த வருடங்கள் தான், அந்தக் கடவுளர்கள் தான், நமக்கு ஒவ்வொரு ஆண்டிற்கும் வைக்கப்படுகிற வருடங்கள், ஆண்டுகள் என்றிருந்தால் தமிழன் அதை ஏற்றுக் கொள்ள முடியுமா? அவன் தமிழனாக இருக்க முடியுமா? தமிழனாக இருப்பதற்கு அவனுக்கு எப்படி ஒரு கலை, கலாச்சாரம், நாகரிகம், பண்பாடு இவைகள் எல்லாம் வேண்டுமோ – பண்பாடு வேண்டும், அவனுக்கு வருடம் வேண்டாமா? அவனுக்கு ஒரு ஆண்டு வேண்டாமா? அவனுக்கு ஒரு திங்கள் வேண்டாமா? மாதம் வேண்டாமா? கிழமை வேண்டாமா? அதைத் தான் ஆய்ந்தாய்ந்து 500-க்கு மேற்பட்ட புலவர்கள் கூடி, 1921ஆம் ஆண்டு எடுத்த முடிவு தான், நேற்றையதினம் நாம் கொண்டாடிய நாள், தமிழர் புத்தாண்டு நாள் – இந்த ஆண்டு நாம் இதை ஓரளவு மகிழ்ச்சியோடுதான் கொண்டாடியிருக்கிறோம். ஏனென்றால் தமிழர்கள் வேறு ஒரு பக்கத்திலே சங்கடப்பட்டுக் கொண்டிருக்கிற நேரத்தில் நம்மால் அவ்வளவு தான் கொண்டாட முடிந்தது. அந்தத் தமிழர்களுக் காக நாம் இங்கே அந்த விழாவினை ஓரளவு தான் கொண்டாடி னோம்.

அடுத்த ஆண்டுமுதல்….

அடுத்த ஆண்டிலேயிருந்து அமெரிக்க சுதந்திர தினம் எப்படிக் கொண்டாடப்படுகிறதோ – இங்கிலாந்திலே எப்படி சுதந்திரம் தினம் கொண்டாடப்படுகிறதோ அதைப் போலவே தமிழர்களுடைய ஆண்டு தினம் – முதல்நாளைக் கொண்டாட வேண்டும். கடற்கரையிலே வாண வேடிக்கைகள் – ஒவ்வொரு மாவட்டத்தின் தலை நகரத்திலும் – குளக்கரையிலே, தெருக் களிலே, மைதானங்களிலே வான வேடிக்கைகள் நடைபெற வேண்டும். அப்படி கோலாகலமாக இந்த விழாவை நாம் கொண்டாட வேண்டும் என்று கேட்டுக்கொண்டு, விருது வழங்கப்பட்ட இந்த விழாவிலே இந்த விளக்கங்களைத் தருவதற்கு நேரம் கிடைத்த காரணத்தால் உங்களையெல்லாம் சந்திக்கின்ற வாய்ப்பு கிடைத்த காரணத்தால் – என் நோய் பறந்தது என்ற எண்ணத்தோடு மகிழ்ச்சியைத் தெரிவித்துக் கொள்கிறேன்.

One should have the knowledge of astronomy, mathematics and connected textual knowledge to understand any subject matter.

We were taught that the “earth was like that of the shape of an orange” to impress upon that its polar diameter is lesser than that of equitorial diameter. Thus, we do not still believe that the earth has neither the shape nor the size that of an orange.

We were taught about atoms as “indivisible” based on Dalton”s atomic theory. But, many years later Rutherford, Bohr and others disproved with their experiments that “atom” can be divided into sumatomic particles like proton, neutron, electron, neutrino etc. Thus, the word “atom” has become redundant and meaningless, however, as Western / Greek legacy, we still use.

However, here, the attempt of Karunanidhi has been shere idiotic, mischievous and spiteful, as he has been bent upon to malign Indian tradition, heritage and culture.

He should have some basics when he knows to mention the names of the so-called 60 years!

Jupiter conjoins Saturn in 19.859 years at an advance of about 123 degrees. After three conjunctions, 59.577 years, it recurs at a mean advance of 8.93° – the first order recurrence cycle of Jupiter-Saturn. With this 9-degree advance every 60 years, in 40 conjunctions the advance moves around the circle and in 794.37 years returns to within 0.93° of the starting point – the second order recurrence cycle. This 1° discrepancy would thus locate a third order recurrence cycle in 360 times 800 years, roughly speaking, a period too far in excess of recorded history to be useful as a frame of reference.

The cycle of Jupiter now in general use is a cycle of sixty years, the samvatsaras of which bear certain special names, Prabhava, Vibhava, Sukla, Pramoda, “c., again in accordance with certain rules. This cycle exists in three varieties. According to the original constitution of this cycle, the samvatsaras are determined as in the second or mean-sign variety of the 12-years cycle: each samvatsara commences when Jupiter enters a sign of the zodiac with reference to his mean motion and longitude; and it lasts for slightly more than 361.02 days. This variety is traced back in inscriptional records to A.D. 602, and is still used in Northern India.The names of 60-year Jupiter cycle are found in the South Indian inscriptions – Chalukaya.

Mere rhetoric cannot serve the purpose.

Senility may be a trait of, relating to, exhibiting, or characteristic of old age <senile weakness> ; especially : exhibiting a loss of cognitive abilities (as memory) associated with old age, but, here in his case, it cannot be accepted as he talks nonsense, only when anything Indian / Hindu has to be attacked, he has been very clear.

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Karunanidhi way of Meddling with Chronology and History – I

January 17, 2010

Karunanidhi way of Meddling with Chronology and History

VEDAPRAKASH

Traditional names of Tamil calendar knocked off[1]: All official communications will henceforth avoid the 60 names given to the Tamil years. Instead, they will merely give the year in terms of ‘Thiruvalluvar era’. The order follows another controversial step that the government had taken recently when it changed the Tamil New Year from the first day of the month of Chithirai (mid-April) to the first day of Thai, also celebrated as Pongal, the Tamil harvest festival (mid-January). A government order issued early this month by the Personnel and Administrative Reforms Department has instructed all departments, including collectors and district judges, not to mention the present Tamil year Sarvajit in government orders, official letters, communications, and other publications. And in future, all departments have been told not to mention the 60-years in the Tamil calendar, from Prabava to Akshaya at any time in future. Only the Tamil month, date and Thiruvalluvar year should be mentioned alongside the Christian year, the order says. The 60-year cycle, in which each year has a name, is sequenced in the traditional Tamil almanac (panchangam). Interestingly, the names of the years in the Tamil calendar are in Sanskrit. And this is what seems to have irked Dravidian patriarch and chief minister M Karunanidhi. “Is it rational to take refuge in the age old panchangam?” Karunanidhi had asked in a recent poem when there was a debate among Tamils on the rationale behind shifting of Tamil New Year. Enquiry with Tamil scholars reveal that the Tamil months and days find reference in Tholkappiam and Sangam literature but the names of 60-years have no reference in Tamil texts anywhere. “The non-Tamil names of the years are not found in the same sequence in any of the North Indian calendars,’’ say officials in Tamil Development Department. Besides, the confusion over the occurrence of an event in a given year, say, Sarvajit, cannot be avoided as there would be more than one Sarvajit years in a century, officials point out. By numbering every year under the Thiruvalluvar era, like the Christian era, it will be easy to relate to a particular year without any confusion, officials said, explaining the rationale behind the order. For instance, this year is Thiruvalluvar year 2039. The era has been named after the ancient saint-poet and author of the Thirukkural. However, the Dravidian leader is clear that this is not the place for Aryans. In the same poem, he had questioned the validity of giving such names for the years. “I am not against those who want to uphold Aryan values, but I will not allow anyone to stand in the way of my objective of giving importance to the kural-based Tamil era,” he said. Thus, it is imperative to analyse the issue and find out the truth.

Karunanidhi carries on the British legacy: Many times, researchers, social-analysts, political-forecasters, religious-prophets assert that enemies need not come from outside, but they are created within themselves or in a particular society or nation by others, so that they carry out and fulfil their expected or anticipated acts. Thus, the British sowed the seeds of unhistorical hypotheses and theories of Aryans and Dravidians and other blabbering[2]. In Indian historical tradition, there had never been such mention about two different races existing and fighting with each other always in the ancient Bharat. In fact, the Sangam literature mention about “Aryans”, but no whisper about “Dravidians”.  In fact, such mentioned “Aryans” were never considered or treated as coming from outside Bharat, but people of part of Bharat. Though historians have accepted that there were neither Aryans nor Dravidians and the AIT is a myth[3], the only creed on the earth believes, nurtures and carries it have been the Dravidian groups of all sorts. They still believe in race, racism, racialism, blood and other pseudo-scientific and discarded race hypotheses and theories[4]. Ironically, though they carry on and survive on such idiotic, unhistorical and anti-human belief and doctrines and dogmas, the westerners support them directly and indirectly[5]. Karunanidhi and others of the Black Paryivar have been always talking, discussing and writing only in terms of racist language inciting hatred among the people.

Recently, the acts of Karunanidhgi reveal a single point agenda – oppose everything that is Hindu. It is very open, perhaps, as his utterances and actions prove. Starting with his blasphemous attack on Rama, his anti-Hindu tirade has increased with aggressive geometrical progression and astronomical proportions. The recent one being interfering with the celebration of Tamil New Year’s Day by forcing temples not to follow the Pancangam and all. This is blatant interference of the government with the practice of crores of believers of the country and he has no locus standi to do that. As the British tried to destroy or suppress the Kali Era, Karunanidhi (b.1924) is trying to bury the glorious past of the Tamils under the guise of opposing Sanskrit and Hindu calendar, which is totally incorrect. In fact, people have forgotten his own appreciation of such 60-year cycle incorporating in his poem (for details see below). The DK and other Black Parivar has been evidently pressurising him to do such nonsensical acts of meddling with history and chronology of the Tamils. It is evident that the advisers or the propounders that Tamil literature had no reference to sixty-year cycle have no basic knowledge of Indian Tamil tradition, astronomy and history as explained below.

Sowiyanukkup Piragu Intha Sadharanan: C. N. Annadurai (1909-1969) had a name “Sowmiyan”. As he died in 1969, he came to power and at that time, he composed a song, “Sowiyanukkup Piragu Intha Sadharanan” came for ruling! At that time, the Government AIR / DD used to broadcast the New Year poem recital by VIPs and others. Karunanidhi composed a poem and recited in his usual way. Annadurai had a pen name “Sowmiyan”. Ironically or incidentally, he died in the year “Sowmiya”! If you go through the list of 60 years, the year Sowmiya precedes Sadharana. When Annadurai died in the Sowmiya Andu (1969-70), Karunanidhi became CM in the Sadharana Andu (1970-71). Making it figuratively, he composed the lines that, “Sowiyanukkup Piragu Intha Sadharanan” came to rule! What happened to his ideology at that time? He did not think about Tiruvalluvar Andu at that time, but gleefully singing song as mentioned. How is that the years which were acceptable to him 38 years back became suddenly anathema? As a CM also, he did not bother to remove such names and not to use such 60 years – starting with Prabhava and ending with Akshaya! Is it not shame to call himself so as Sadharanan and his predecessor-mentor as Sowmiyan? Thus, it is evident that something happened to him or controlling him to act like this.

Can any Era be introduced just like that? In the history of humankind, era is introduced, because of the good acts of a person on his capacity as a master, teacher, ruler, king, empire and so on, that too, buy the beloved people. Era has not been just age of reason, epoch of achievement, period of conquests or time of wisdom, but it is human past recorded in the memory and passed on to the progeny for practice. It is connected with chronology of people to be recorded for history. Chronology and history are connected, though the methods may differ in the respective fields because of human bias. Thus, history can be meddled with differing historiographical methods, but chronology cannot be meddled, even if meddled, such meddling would get exposed immediately. Chronology is a combination of method applied using mathematics, astronomy, cosmology and geology. At one side, it is the study of time, time measurement and time recording techniques, but at the other side, the time recording of humanity, human activity and human achievements also.

The cognition and calculation of day and night, observed solar and lunar effects and movements, vernal equinoxes, periodic rotation of planets, asterism, zodiac, and calendar – all are involved in it. Man has observed such events and recorded with diligence over period of time and therefore, the past astronomical recordings cannot be brushed aside, unless, astronomically and scientifically something is proved wrong in such past observations and recordings. In fact, such exercise was carried out then and there, as could be seen from the criticism of methods of one astronomer by another. The correction carried on has been an accepted standard, it such corrective methodology is aimed at perfection of time recording. So if any era is introduced, the introducer takes all factors into consideration. It is not just like insertion of one month each in ten-month calendar making twelve-month calendar.

Just look at the names of the months now we follow: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, and December. Scholars have pointed out September, October, November, and December clearly point to – seventh month (sapta = seven), eighth month (octa = eight), ninth month (nava = nine), tenth month (dasa = ten). The westerners claim that the months July and August have been the intruders because of Julius Caesar[8] and August Caesar[9]. So an intelligent student can ask what happened to the first to sixth months? Why their names were changed? Could they be known as Ekamber, Dwiamber, Triamber, Caturambar, Panchamber, Hastamber?[10] Just by introducing two months, they cannot adjust the calendar. Then, we are explained that not only, they inserted two more months in the ten-month calendar, but to show off their superiority, they made their months with maximum days i.e, 31 days! If Julius Caesar could have done it, why not by August Caesar? And how it was done? Just by grabbing days from other months[11]. It appears so wonderful, so astronomical and so scientific. Thus, we follow the wonderful calendar throughout the world, as forced by the colonial rulers.

Chronology – Its relation to Astronomy and Astrology: It is said that the system of reckoning time and hence that of historical events has been a modern concept, but it is modern even among the westerners. Different westerners or Europeans were using different systems of time reckoning in their respective countries based on the prevalent culture, tradition and heritage. Suddenly, they were stunned to receive astronomical tables received from
India.

Gregorian calendar: Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585), who decreed in 1582 a calendar with fasts and feasts to be adopted by the Roman Catholics, heavily depended on the Indian astronomical tables. However, it (the Catholic calendar) contained many inaccuracies: 1.      The year 1582 had only 355 days.2.      The concept of leap year. 1600 was made leap year, but not 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, 2300 and so on.3.      There was no leap year between 1896 and 1904, and 1900 was not considered as a leap year.4.      Ten days were dropped and 5th October 1582 was called 15th October.5.      The error accumulation is one day in about 3,320 years.

Though, the Greek Church and Protestant nations did not recognize and follow it, in 1752,
England fall in line by calling 3rd September as 14th! The year was made commence on January 1st instead of March 25th! In fact, the chronologization of events based on the new calendar has created many problems. They started mentioning the dates followed by O.S (Old System) and N.S (New System). For example, the date of birth of Newton himself was subjected to dispute – Dec.25, 1642 O.S or January 4, 1643 N.S!

Here, the Church played a crucial role in imposing Gregorian Calendar (1582) on the Christian
States to be followed for political and civil purposes. Then came James Ussher (1581-1656), the famous Christian chronologer. He went to England in 1640 and took part in the ecclesiastical questions raised in the Long Parliament[14]. He was the first to attempt the Biblical chronology and declared that the God, Jehovah created the Universe and the world on October 23, 4004 BCE! All the Church and other historians faithfully followed his works Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates (1639) and The Annals of the World (1658). Accordingly, almanacs, annals erc., were compiled with the new Calendar. The Christian scholars, historians or scientists had strong belief that the Ussher’s system should be adhered strictly. The essential of the biblical version of creation and the world’s history was not seriously questioned during the 18th century[15]. An almanac is a year book of dates and tables, giving a calendar of days and months, ecclesiastical fasts and feasts, the age of the moon, the tides, and the exact time of sun’s rising and setting etc. The name almanac is derived from al-manah in Arabic, as the Europeans obtained such tables from the Arabs, but the Arabs, in fact got them from Indians.  Al manah means the sundial, because, all the measurements of time were made principally associated with the Sun. This is nothing but panchangam used in India since time immemorial (the extant work Vedanga Jyotisa of Lagada c.1400 BCE[16]). According to the claim of westerners, Regiomontanus was the fist-published almanac in Latin in 1475. When this has been the history of Panchangam, Karunanidhi criticizes it with his poetry!

How Karunanidhi did it? Does Karunanidhi know any astronomy? Does he have any committee of astronomers or such experts? How then, he simply could have done away with the “sixty year” cycle reckoning of years? As fanatic Dravidians do not like Sanskrit named months, just like that they can be removed? But, could they change the past chronology and the history connected with it? He is considered as an authority in Tamil literature. So at least, he could have gone into the Sangam literature to find out what era, they followed, what calendar, zodiac or year-cycle followed etc., instead of simply changing the starting of Tamil year or discarding the sixty-cycle notation.

Did the People of Tamizhagam Followed a Jupiter Cycle? The discussion about the Zodiac based on Inthimai or Inthinai Zodiac points to a possibility that the people of Tamizhagam might have followed a Jupiter cycle for the calculation and recording time and events[17]. Here, taking a cue from the Sangam literature, the symbolism used, charts were prepared with the Inthinai mentioned. The literary references are converted into numbers. Thus, time of a day is divided into five equal parts = 24 / 5 = 4.8 hours, a year is divided into five parts = 12 / 5 = 2.4 months per division and thus, the zodiac is divided into 5 parts, thus 360 / 5 = 720. 1.      The number 72 appears to be significant in the context. 2.      For the precession of the equinoxes to cover up one degree in the zodiac, Jupiter takes 72 years approximately. 3.      It has 12 satellites. 4.      There are two Jupiter cycles one consisting of 60 years and another 12 years. The sixty year cycle is used throughout
India since the days of Vedic period (Vedanta Jyotisha dated to c.1400 BCE). 5.      This is the time taken by Jupiter in passing one sign of zodiac and also known as Jovian year.

Surya Siddhanta[18], the ancient astronomical work extant defines and the method of calculation of Jupiter cycle:“Multiply by 12 the past Jupiter revolutions of Jupiter, add the signs of the current revolution, add and divide by sixty; the remainder marks the year of Jupiter’s cycle, counting from Vijaya [Surya Siddhanta – I.55].In Vaishaka etc., a conjunction (yoga) in the dark half-month (krishna), on the 15th lunar day (thithi), determines in like manner the years Karttika etc., of Jupiter, from his helical setting (asta) and rising (udaya) [Surya Siddhanta – XIV.17]”.The first verse clearly points to the existence of sixty year cycle that is still followed throughout India. The second quoted verse points to the Skanda Shasthi festival / birth of Viskhaka / Karttikeya. Then what is the relation between the 60 year cycle and 12 year cycle? Mathematically, it is 60 / 12 = 5.

If in any year, the helical setting of Jupiter takes place in the month Vaishaka, then the asterism with which the moon is found to be in the conjunction at the end of that month, which will be, of course, the asterism of the year, which is Krittika. Thus, here, the relation between Vaishaka and Karttika is explained. Therefore, the connecting factor of these two months and as well as stars is Muruga and his worship.

Astronomically, the connecting factor of two Jupiter cycle is 5 and it is Inthinai-Zodiac[19]. Therefore, the poet or poets who had been familiar with the three important aspects – Surya Siddhanta / Vedic Astronomy, myth of Vaishaka and Karttika and Inthinai-Zodiac and of course Tamil (perhaps Sanskrit too) could have only conceived such Zodiac and presented such astronomical myth through his / their poetics and poetry. And this historical process could have taken place only about the period in which the Tamizhagam was reigning supreme in all aspects. The following is a note from the D.  C. Sircar book[20].

Jupiter Cycle of sixtry years[21]: The duration of Jupiter’s stay in a particular zodiacal sign is called Jupiter’s year which lasts for 361 days, 2 ghatikas or dandas and 3 palas. This year is thus shorter than the solar year by 4 days, 13 ghatikas or dandas and 26 palas. That is why one Jupiter’s year becomes suppressed in 85 solar years.

There is a name for each one of the 60 years of Jupiter’s cycle, and the years are mentioned by their names. But the 60 names are counted in North and
South India in two different orders.

The sixty years of Jupiter’s cycle are as follows:

1.      Prabhava2.      Vibhava3.      Sukla4.      Pramoda

5.      Prajapati

6.      Angiras

7.      Srimukha

8.      Bhava9.      Yuvan

10.  Dhatr

11.  Isvara

12.  Bahudhanya

13.  Pramathin

14.  Vikrama

15.  Vrsa

16.  Citrabhanu

17.  Subhanu

18.  Tarana

19.  Parthiva

20.  Vyaya

21.  Sarvajit22.  Sarvadharani23.  Virodhin24.  Vikrit

25.  Khara

26.  Nandana

27.  Vijaya

28.  Jaya

29.  Manmatha

30.  Durmukha

31.  Hemalamba

32.  Vilambin

33.  Vikarin

34.  Sarvarin

35.  Plava

36.  Subhakri

37.  Sobhana

38.  Krodhin

39.  Visvasu

40.  Prabhava

41.  Plavanga42.  Kilaka43.  Saumya44.  Sadharana

45.  Virodhakri

t46.  Paridhavin

47.  Pramadin

48.  Ananda

49.  Raksasa

50.  Nala / Anala

51.  Pingala

52.  Kalayukta

53.  Siddharthin

54.  Raudra

55.  Durmati

56.  Dundhubhi

57.  Rudhirodgarin

58.  Raktaksa

59.  Krodhana

60.  Ksaya / Aksaya

Varahamihira applies the name Vijaya (No.27) to the first year of the Kaliyuga era while later writers like the author of the Jyotisatattva gives it as Prabhava (No. 1).in North India, Jupiter’s year is theoretically begins from the planet’s entry into a particular zodiacal sign, though in actual practice Caitrasudi 1 is regarded as its first day.

According to Varahamihira[22], to find out the name of a particular Saka year after the North Indian system, one has to multiply the number expired Saka year by 11 and the product again by 4;  to the product 8589 has to be added, and the sum has to be divided by 3750; the quotient has then to be added to the number of the Saka year and the product has to be divided again by 60. The remainder thus received would be the number of the expired year in the cycle beginning with Prabhava[23].

In South India, Jupiter’s year is regarded as the same as the solar year. The first year of the Kali era is Pramathin (No. 13), and the year is taken to begin with from Caitra-sudi 1.

The rule for finding out the name of a particular Saka year according to Zsouth Indian cycle of Jupiter is as follows: 12 has to be added to the number of the expired Saka year; the sum has to be divided by 60; the remainder would be the number of the current year of the cycle beginning from Prabhava. Another rule is as follows: 12 has to be added to the number of the expired Kali year; then the sum has to be divided by 60 and the remainder would be the number of the year of the cycle beginning with Prabhava[24].

The names of the years according to Jupiter’s 60-year cycle are only occasionally met with the records of North India. But they are very popular in the South India even today. It was formerly believed that the earliest epigraph mentioning such a name is the Mahakuta pillar inscription of Calukya Mangalesa (597-610 CE) of Badami, dated in the year Siddharth (Sidharthin)[25]. But frecently the name of the cyclic year Vijaya has been traced in two Nagarjunakonda inscriptions, one of the time of the Iksvaku king Virapurusadatta (second half of the third century CE) and another of his son Ehuvala Santamula (close of the 3rd and early part of the 4th century)[26]. Vijaya was originally the first year of the Cycle.

Thus, it is clear that the 60-cycle year with their names have been so popular among the
South India than North India. As the ancient Tamils must have been using such cycle in consistent with the Inthinai Zodiac, such tradition cannot be suppressed because of the present misguided fanaticism and chauvinism. Actually, under vthe guise of promoting Tamil, the actual Tamil culture is destroyed, that too, meddling with the historical evidences, which cannot be allowed. Ironically, the historians, who very often make hue and cry, keep quiet for Karu’s meddling with chronology. Romila Thapar, who came to defend Karu by writing two articles one in “The Hindu” and another EPW keeps quiet.

How can a ruler go against the people? Karnanidhi has been given mandate for all the people of Tamilnadu and he cannot go against the tradition, culture, heritage and civilization of Tamilnadu, India. If Karunanidhi wants that he wants to be a Dravidian fascist, Tamil fanatic, linguistic chauvinist, blatant racist, rabid communalist etc., that is entirely different from the person ruling TN as CM. But, very often, he forgets this and behaves like Karunanidhi instead of CM of TN. First he ordered that Tamil new year’s day should not be celebrated on April 14th in the sense that Panchangam should not be read in the temples on that day. Now, he passes another order that the sixty-year notation would be discarded and such named-years should not be used in the government documents etc. This is Hitlerism aided and abetted by his group of Goebbelism. Definitely, he has exceeded the Constitutional, legal and democratic limits.

The Calendar Reform Committee under Government of India appointed in November 1952 had gone into the details of prevalent divergences and introduced a national calendar[27] wef March 22, 1957.  Therefore, the introduction of Tiruvalluvar Andu may serve the sentiments of the Tamil chauvinists, but it has no historical or astronomical basis. None could produce any historical document, epigraph or any other evidence to this effect. Mere sentiments are alone not enough to introduce an era or epoch. No doubt, every one respects the Great Tamil Poet Tiruvalluvar, but, with him such controversy need not be carried on. Therefore, misusing the official power, that too, with anti-Hindu, anti-national ideology, they cannot bugle with everything.

VEDAPRAKASH

29-04-2008.


[1] B. Arvind Kumar, Traditional names of Tamil calendar knocked off, Times of India, April 28, 2008, Chennai edition, p.5.

[2] Now there have been a lot of source materials available and there is no doubt about the British who gave a last kick to Indians, before giving the so-called Independence.Max Mueller has long back withdrew his theory.Even Ambedkar in his books has refuted the Aryan-Dravidian theories.Leon Poliakov, The Aryan myth, Chapter.9, The Quest for the new Adam, London, 1974. The author gives the background of the creation of “Aryan myth” and implications.

[3] Even Romila Thapar has confessed and other Marxists in their own way to save their ideology.

[4] The racist views, speeches and writings of the Dravidian ideologists, protagonists and politicians even today, as is revealed through print and electronic media has been a standing evidence but glaring contradiction in the democratic and secular polity of India.

[5] Take the American and European researchers, they unwittingly or wittingly accommodate and encourage their racist, racialist, communalist views and perhaps enjoy, as they are used to beat the Indians themselves again through their methodology.

Eugene Irshchick, Politics and social cionflicts in South Asia: The non-Brahmin movement and Tamil separatism, 1916-1929, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1969.

Marguerite Ross Barenett, The Politics of Cultural Nationalism: The DMK in Tamilnadu, South India, unpublished Ph.D dissertation, University of Chicago, 1972.

[6] Thousands of articles are available in Epigraphica Indica, Journal of Royal Asiatic Research, Indian Antiquary, Asiatic Researches etc.

B. L. Van der Warden, The Conjunction of 3102 B.C, Centarus, 1980, Vol.24, pp.117-131.

Kailash Chandra Varma, The Kali Era and Ignored Glimpses of Indian Antiquity, ABORI, Vol.LVII ” LVIII (Diamond Jubile), 1977-78, pp.1025-1047.

J. F. Fleet, The Kaliyuga Era of 3102 B.C, JRAS, pp.479-496; 675-698.

K. V. Ramakrishna Rao, Kali Era – The Lively Controversy Among the Western Scholars, Aryabhateeya’99, Thiruvananthapuram, 1999, p.16.

……………………….., Historicity, Astronomy and Kaliyuga, The proceedings of a seminar held at Chennai in October 2002 on Ancient History of India through Vedic Astronomy, ISIAC, Chennai, 2003, pp.44-57.

………………………..,Kali Era as Gleaned from the Literary and Epigraphical Evidences, Ibid, pp.58-70.

[7] B. Arvind Kumar, Traditional names of Tamil calendar knocked off, Times of India, April 28, 2008, Chennai edition, p.5.

Dinamalar, Implementation of Tiruvalluvar Year and no more “Sarvadhari, April 28, 2008, Chennai edition, p.5.

[8] He is credited with introduction of one calendar in 45 BCE.Keith Gordon Irwin, The Circle of Days: Measurement of Time, A Ladder Publication, 1965, USA, pp.56-58.

[9] Ibid, pp.58-62.

[10] The ten-month year had Martius, Aprilis, Marius, Iunius, Quintilis (five), Sextilis (six), September, October, November and December.

[11] Thus, both months July and August have 31 days!

[12] John Playfair, Some Remarks on the Astronomy of Brahmins, in  Edinburgh Review, U. K, 1789. He has discussed about the astronomical tables taken away from India and Siam respectively by the Jesuit missionaries to Europe, their study by the European scientists and astronomers pointing to an epoch starting with 3102 BCE, the Kaliuyuga.

[13] K. V. Ramakrishna Rao, European Scientists: Indian Chronology and Historiography, XXth Session of South Indian History Congress held at Tiruvananthapuram from Feb.25-27, 2002.

……………………………………….., The Interest of European Scientists  in Indian Chronology and Historiography, UGC Seminar on Situating Historical Writings in Post-Independence India (Abstracts volume), held at Bharathidasan University on March 23 ” 23, 2002, Tiruchirappalli, pp.16-17.

………………………………….….., The Interest of European Scientists in Indian Calendar and Chronology, in Indian Calendar and Chronology (Seminar papers) held at Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad on August 9 ” 10, 2003, pp.1-20.

[14] The so-called Long Parliament discussed so many issues particularly, the eccelestical issues connected with science, astronomy etc.

[15] R. N. Stromberg, Religious Liberalism in Eighteenth-Century England, Oxford, 1954, pp.26-27.

[16] Vedanga Jyotisha authored by Laghadha has been the oldest astronomical extant text dated to c.1450 BCE with the internal evidences, which specifically talks about the 60-year cycle followed.Laghadha, Vedanga Jyotisha, Text with English translation published by the Indian
National Science Academy, New Delhi.

[17] K. V. Ramakrishna Rao, Zodiac and Murugan Worship, in ‘The Antiquity of Worship of Skanda-Karttikeya-Subramanya’, Bharatiya Itihasa Sankalana Samiti, Chennai, 2001.………………………………………., The Zodiac of the Tamils or the Zodiac Depicted in the Sangam Literature or Inthinai Zodiac of the ancient Tamils, a paper presented during the Tamilnadu History congress, Poondi College, Thanjavur, October 10-12, 2003.…………………………………….., The Worship of Murukan and the Zodiac and Mrukan, a paper presented at the Skanda-Muruga International Conference held at Malaysia, November 3-5, 2003.

[18] Surya Siddhanta has been the oldest Indian astronomical work dealing with many astronomical concepts, planetary theories, formulae, rules etc., ahead of others. Thus, the westerners tried to meddle with its dating. In short, they always try to prove that the Indians derived or borrowed or rather copied every thing from the Greeks, if not from the Babylonians, Egyptians and others.

[19] K. V. Ramakrishna Rao, Iraiyanar Agapporul Chronology – myth or Reality, a paper presented during the Tamilnadu History Congress, October 13-14, 2001, held at Chennai.

[20] D. C. Sircar, Indian Epigraphy, Motilal Banarasidas, New Delhi, 1996, pp.267-269.

[21]Ojha, Bharatiya Pracin Lipimala, pp.188-189.

[22] Brahatsamhita, VIII, 20.

[23] Surya Siddhanta – I.55 and Surya Siddhanta – XIV.17, as mentioned and discussed above. Thus, it is evident that Varaha Mihira was following the Surya Siddhanta. Incidentally, this proves the dating of Surya Siddhanta in later period is wrong.

[24] Same as above sl. No. 22.

[25] Indian Antiquary, Vol.XIX, p.18.

[26] Epigraphica Indica, XXXV, p.1 ff.

[27] S. K. Chatterjee, Indian Calendric System, Publications Divisions, Government of
India, New Delhi, 1998 (Saka 1920)

Romila Thapar, Duke University, Methodist Church or Romila Thapar, Secularism, Secular history: The Role of Historian and Social Change!

July 16, 2009
Romila Thapar, Duke University, Methodist Church or Romila Thapar, Secularism, Secular history: The Role of Historian and Social Change!
Published on October 23rd, 2007 In Uncategorized, Politics |  Views 410
Romila Thapar, Duke University, Methodist Church orRomila Thapar, Secularism, Secular history: The Role of Historian and Social Change! I am happy to know that, “The Historian in the World: A Conversation with John Hope Franklin and Romila Thapar” will take place at 3 p.m. in the Divinity School’s Goodson Chapel on Duke’s West Campus. It is free and open to the public. Srinivas Aravamudan, director of the John Hope Franklin Humanities Institute, will moderate the discussion”. http://www.dukenews .duke.edu/ 2007/10/conversa tion.htmlI am more anxious what the historians discuss there in the Divinity School’s Goodson Chapel on Duke’s West Campus on October 22, 2007!

“the DivinitySchool’s Goodson Chapel on Duke’s West Campus” made me curious to look into the details. The University claims that, “The Duke University is related the Methodist Church”.

For details see: “Duke University”s Relation to the Methodist Church”:  http://library.duke.edu/uarchives/history/duke-umchh.html

  •      Well, it is all right, bt how the reportedly Communist or Marxist, progressive, secuar Romila Thapar would be speaking there in the, “the Divinity School’s Goodson Chapel on Duke’s West Campus”?
  •      How “Two distinguished scholars will share their views of the role of the historian and social change”?
  •      Would they discuss within the Charter, bylaws, aims, and mission statement” or they go beyond?

The “Charter, bylaws, aims, and mission statement” contains a provision, as follows:

The aims of Duke University are to assert a faith in the eternal union of knowledge and religion set forth in the teachings and character of Jesus Christ, the Son of God; to advance learning in all lines of truth; to defend scholarship against all false notions and ideals; to develop a Christian love of freedom and truth; to promote a sincere spirit of tolerance; to discourage all partisan and sectarian strife; and to render the largest permanent service to the individual, the state, the nation, and the church. Unto these ends shall the affairs of this University always be administered”.http://library.duke.edu/uarchives/history/charterlink.html

How Ropmila Thapar hailing from “Secular India” is going to be accommodative, conducive and recptive to such Christians principles in the name of Jesus Christ? This makes me remember as to how the Christian Crusades, marriages and other functions are held at the “Periyar Tidal” (auditourium with big hall) at Chennai, India. The podium / stage there bear the Cross-believing Christians and the atheists, who speak against the God, scriptures and believers! Like that, would the “the Divinity School’s Goodson Chapel on Duke’s West Campus” bear the secular, progressive and sectarian Romila Thapar there in the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of God?

Just remember, what she wrote about Jesus Christ, when she was accusing Rama, the Hindu God as a myth:

This does not happen with the biographies of those who were known to be historical figures and who founded belief systems: the Buddha, Jesus Christ, Mohammad. Their biographies adhere largely to a single story-line and this helps to endorse the ‘official’ narrative of their life. Their existence is recorded in other sources as well that are not just narratives of their lives but have diverse associations…..”.

At that time, I had responded as follows:

Their biographies adhere largely to a single story-line and this helps to endorse the ‘official’ narrative of their life.Why they should largely adhere to a single line? How this helps “official” narrative? How “official” it could be of “their life”? Why can’t you write as a historian instead of believer here? That the “biographers” were compelled or forced to accept or adhere to a single line proves that many lines were left out. And still small number of biographers who did not adhere to a single line is also exposed. Then, what you are talking about? Majority view and minority view? Condemn the “lesser” and accept or approve the Larger”! Adhere to one-line and forget many lines! What sort of historian you are? That man Karu has become a senile man and talks differently. Do you also do the same think as a senile lady?How you endorse such one-liners? Is there any historical methodology to that effect? Which University teaches such approving of one-line biography by eminent historians like you?Do not fool Indians. Ernest Renan, J. M. Robertson and so many reputed authorities are there on the subject matter of Jesus Christ and Christianity. Any way, it is your cowardice gets exposed, as you never whispered anything, when there was much Christian opposition to screening of “Da Vinci Code”. However, when the so-called “Hindutva judgment” came out, you vociferously jumped and asserted that “We would go to Court”. Everything appeared in “the Hindu” itself with your face. Madam, what happened? But now you come siding with atheists, anti-Hindus, anti-nationals as a historian suppressing the recent past and forgetting your own past!

Their existence is recorded in other sources as well that are not just narratives of their lives but have diverse associations. So also Rama. Why then your argument goes differently.In fact, their associations differ. But, Ramayana core story, as H. D. Sankalia in his “Ramayana Myth or Reality”  that it had been there nearly for 3000 years.How “That their existences is recorded in other sources” help you to decide?

It may be noted that historians and scholars have pointed out that Christ story was copied from
Krishna! Rama was repeatedly mentioned in different literature not because of variance, but influence and impact created on the people well before 2500-3000 YBP. Was the Sangam poet a fool to record in his poem about his discussion with his army about the mode of crossing over the ocean to Lanka”. How that poet was imaging that that Lanka should have been the Lanka of Ramayana in his times i.e, 2500 – 3000 YBP?”

Definitely, the Americans and American Christian believers might be knowing about the background and the implications revoving around the discussion. So, we Indians are eagerly waiting to see as to how tshe is going to discuss within the conditions of the University and Christian belief system or she would have courage to vent our her genuine feeling as sjhe has been doing here in India against Hindus. As she has recently started supporting the atheist political party DK-DMK-PMK combine of the ruling combine (supported by the Communist-Marxist political parties from outside), we look forward the discussion to fulfil the following conditions:

The aims of Duke University are to assert a faith in the eternal union of knowledge and religion set forth in the teachings and character of Jesus Christ, the Son of God; V     to advance learning in all lines of truth; to defend scholarship against all false notions and ideals; to develop a Christian love of freedom and truth; V     to promote a sincere spirit of tolerance; to discourage all partisan and sectarian strife; and V     to render the largest permanent service to the individual, the state, the nation, and the church.

Unto these ends shall the affairs of this University always be administered

The activities of Duke foundation have been obviously Christian:

For details: click and see http://www.dukeendowment.org/ruralchurch

VEDAPRAKASH

22-10-2007.