Archive for the ‘prejudice’ Category

Black magic, transfer of spirit and all sorceries carried on in the Land of Dravidanadu, where Periyar was born (1)

March 28, 2017

Black magic, transfer of spirit and all sorceries carried on in the Land of Dravidanadu, where Periyar was born (1)

 lord-sri-rama-1971-dk-chappal-garlanded

The Dravidian totalitarian and rationalistic rule during 1960-70s: In Tamilnadu, the Dravidian politicians used to claim about their “rational atheism”, “analytical wisdom” and so on, but in actual life, most of them have been God-believers worshipping God stealthily or by proxy i.e., through their mothers, wives, sisters and daughters. Some of them used to worship gods stealthily in their houses also with puja rooms. However, they say that “I am an atheist, but, I do not interfere with the belief of our family members”. How then, they could interfere with belief of crores of people of Tamilnadu? In public and platform, they pour abuses with the worst filthy language on Hindu religion, Gods and Goddesses and practices that no woman could bear. Yet, they have earned the titles of “Periyar” [big / great person among others or all], “Aringnar” [the only person who knows all], “Kalainjar” [the person who has been expert in all arts / subjects] and so on! Thus, the superiority complex that has been working in their mind set, makes others always to listen to them, accept what they say and none should or could ask any question. During the 1960s, if anybody would question them would be thrashed down.

 DK celebrated Ravana Leela in 1974

During the LPG regime / Internet age, questioning started: This is the way, they have been reigning supreme for the last 60 years. Only their views made public and circulated authoritatively[1]. However, when, internet came, the people started understanding their ambiguous dogma, hollow philosophy and dubious ideology of these groups. The youngsters could easily understand their selective, biased and pre-conceived propaganda carried against one particular religion i.e, Hindu religion[2]. As a ruler, the Dravidian or atheist Chief Minister has to administer and perform his duties as per the Constitutional and other statutory provisions treating all believers. However, in the case of Hindu religion, temples, temple administration, lease and rental of temple and mutt properties, conduct of rituals, rites and ceremonies, they interfered and spoiled many times. Though, the recent past is suppressed, the beating of Rama with chappals and other incidences make the youngsters to realize the duplicity of the Dravidian protagonists. The ganging up of splinter groups of Communists, anti-Hindu ideologists, particularly the Christian and Muslim groups joining them raise questions and they have understood that it is only anti-Hindu and secular or “Paguttaravi”, as being claimed. Under such circumstances, the recent happenings in Tamilnadu exposes their another ugly face of them.

 DK celebrated Ravana Leela in 1974- burned

Annadurai suddely died in 1969: C. N. Annadurai from high caste Mudaliar community was in power during the period 1967 – 1969. However, he fell ill due to excessive usage of tobacco substances. In September 1968 Annadurai went to New York for medical treatment and admitted in the hospital. After diagnosis, it was found out that there was malignant growth in his gullet and hence he was operated for Cancer in the gullet at the Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center. He returned to Chennai in November 1968 and continued to address several official functions against medical advice. His health deteriorated further and he died suddenly on 3 February 1969 within three months returning from USA after sugery and treatment. His cancer was attributed to his habit of chewing tobacco. However, some of the family members doubted about his sudden death. When Karunanidhi immediately took over as CM, people resented about his haste action.  They questioned why the senior pontiff Sri Chandrasekhara Saraswati of Kanchi Mutt wore spectacles as to why God could not have rectified his eyesight without glasses. But, here, none questioned as to why the science allowed man to die in that way in spite of the treatment etc. Later, MGR was also subjected to similar conditions. M. R. Radha attempted to kill MGR (on January 12, 1967), of course, he was not in power. After becoming CM, he was also not having proper health (in 1983 kidney problem developed), admitted to Brooklyn hospital US, returned after kidney transplant on February 4, 1985, but had to get treatment again and again in US and died on December 24, 1987.

Fire walk by the DK

Dravidian brand of astrologers, predictors and magicians: When the DMK came to power, the first thing, they did was to legalize the marriages performed under the “Pakuthtarivi” / “Suyamariyadhai” categories, as such marriages were held null and void in the courts. The rationalism did not work with the scientific judiciary system. Thus, they became cautious in dealing with social issues. The Dravidian politicias have been interested in astrology, auspicious time and date, black magic and all sorts of such superstitious practices, irrational rites and credulous rituals. Though, they denounce everything in public, in private, they practiced and hence their brand of Dravidian astrologers, predicting experts and magicians have been developed in due course and they have to keep the secrets in person, not to tell anybody in public and carry on their business, to safeguard their interests. That is why Karunanidhi used to hesitate to enter the Brahadheswarar temple, but wear yellow shwal as per the advice of his “asthana jyodhidar”, court / personal astrologer. Under such circumstances, the current events are to be analyzed.

Dravida fire-pot imitating

The antics, gimmicks and counter-rituals of of Dravida Kazhagam and allied groups: The Dravidar Kazhagam used to play gimmicks by imitating the  ritual of coconut breaking, fasting during eclipses, firewalk, carrying pots of burning coal, spiking one’s tongue and body with iron hooks, the concept of auspicious time, astrology, palm reading etc[3]. Though, they used to criticize only Hindu religion for the so-called “ritualism”[4], they close eyes, when they themselves follow such “ritualistic” practices, i.e, respecting the statues of EVR, Maniammai, celebrating birth and death days, garlanding and showering the idols with flowers. However, they never reenact the “crucifixion” of the Christians and bleeding beatings of “Shia Muslims” exposing their hypocrisy. Again, when Jayalalita was in hospital, the followers carried on all devoted rituals and rites praying all gods to save her. Incidentally, they were carried on in the most “secular” way, in the sense, Christians and Muslims have also participated. Therefore, tactfully, the DK groups kept silence to prove their ideology!

Was black magiv involved inn the death of Amma

Was Jayalalita died because of black magic?: The Daily Mail, UK carried a news item as follows[5]: “A leading astro guru in Chennai has said that Tamil Nadu chief minister J Jayalalithaa is a victim of black magic which has left her hospitalised since September, 2017. Not willing to identify himself for security reasons, the spiritual guru said Jayalalithaa has suffered from bad health because she has too many rivals. “It’s not just people from the rival party (DMK) who have spent huge money on tantriks to damage Jayalalithaa’s health. “I have no hesitation in saying that she has detractors even within her own party (AIADMK) who wanted to see her suffer,” he said. News on the health condition of Jayalalithaa is being kept a top secret. She is admitted in Apollo hospital in Chennai. Apart from a team of in-house specialists, doctors from the AIIMS New Delhi and a critical care specialist from London, are also involved in ensuring the CM is now stable. The astro guru also said it was quite possible Jayalalithaa’s arch rival M Karunanidhi could also be suffering from bad health due to tantrik spells. “Rivalry in political circles is very common and it would be wrong to say only one political party indulges in black magic and sorcery. This is noholds barred…,” he said”.

Was black magiv involved inn the death of Amma-2

The position and condition when Jaya was not feeling well (September to December 2016): What we can understand from this, are the following points[6]:

  1. Not willing to identify himself for security reasons, the spiritual guru said Jayalalithaa has suffered from bad health because she has too many rivals.
  2. “It’s not just people from the rival party (DMK) who have spent huge money on tantriks to damage Jayalalithaa’s health.
  3. “I have no hesitation in saying that she has detractors even within her own party (AIADMK) who wanted to see her suffer,” he said.
  4. News on the health condition of Jayalalithaa was being kept a top secret.

Thus, the nexus between the Dravidian politicians and the tantriks came out publically in the media. Ironically, none of the Dravidian ideologists like K. Veeramani, Kali Pungundran, “Viduthalai” Rajendran, Kolattur Mani and others refuted this, but, kept quite. Whom they were meeting, how the money paid, where the rituals taking place – the details – nothing known or revealed to anybody. Under such circumstances, the black magic affairs of one Karthikeyan came just after the death of Jayalalitha on 05-12-2016.

© Vedaprakash

28-03-2017

[1] In 1956 August first, Dravidia Kazhagam asked the volunteers to bum pictures of Lord Rama as the organization considered Ramayana as anti-women and anti lower castes etc. one Dravidia Kazhagam leader in the name of Thiruvarur Thangarajan wrote a new version of Ramayana way Rama was portrayed as a villain. The Dravidia Kazhagam film star M.R. Radha staged the play throughout the state. The Government led by the Chief Minister Kamaraj immediately banned the play but Dravidia Kazhagam after obtaining court’s pem1ission staged the play in selected towns.

[2]  At the instigation of Thiru E. V. Ramaswami Naicker, the Leader of Dravida Kazhagam, several tableaus depicting the picture of Gods Rama and Muruga were being beaten by a chappal in a procession held at Salem on 23rd and 24th January 1971. When one individual printed the photos of the procession, the DMK government banned and seized the posters.  The Government of Tamil Nadu issued a Notification G. O. Ms. No. 491 Home dated 12-2-1971 directing the posters to be forfeited to the Government on the ground that the said posters contained matters which promote or intend to promote the feelings of enmity and hatred between different classes of citizens of India or which is deliberately or maliciously intended to outrage the religious feelings of any such class by insulting the religion or the religious feelings of that class.

Madras High Court – Chinna Annamalai vs The State Of Tamil Nadu on 24 February, 1971; Equivalent citations: AIR 1971 Mad 448, 1971 CriLJ 1569, (1971) IIMLJ 158; Author: K Reddy; Bench: K Reddy, Ganesan, Maharajan.https://indiankanoon.org/doc/1710030/

[3] Frontline, Going backward, R. Krishnakumar in Thiruvananthapuram and In Dravidian land, R. Ilangovan in Chennai in Frontline, Print edition : October 4, 2013.

[4] http://www.frontline.in/cover-story/thriving-business/article5137608.ece

[5] Daily Mail, ‘Her enemies are making her suffer’: Top Astro Guru says CM Jayalalithaa is a victim of BLACK MAGIC, By MAIL TODAY BUREAU, PUBLISHED: 23:52 BST, 26 October 2016 | UPDATED: 00:16 BST, 27 October 2016

[6] http://www.dailymail.co.uk/indiahome/indianews/article-3875860/Her-enemies-making-suffer-Astro-Guru-says-CM-Jayalalithaa-victim-BLACK-MAGIC.html

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Hindu Maya and Christian Cyber-missions, evangelism and Implications

November 5, 2012

Hindu Maya and Christian Cyber-missions, evangelism and Implications

Iwrote this five years back anticipitating the Chritian propaganda unleashed through cyber-space with the blessings of MNCs. With the LPG, they target Indian society easily with their aggressive marketing capabilities using all methods without any code of ethics or morality. Considering the relevancy and context, I post this here without any change salvaging from Internet.

 Cyber-mission on war-path to attack India – the First Crusade may start at any time: On 30th July, 2007, John Dyal was interviewed by the NDTV news reader and repeatedly asked about the Catholic Cyber Conversion adopted and adapted recently. Reacting to this, vigorously and crazily John Dyal started justifying it. When persisted how religion could be brought to the virtual world, he blurted out that “Why not” – Hindus say that the entire world is Maya. Then, it was shown as if the TV crew get opinion of Delhi-students with Christian, half-Christian-half-Hindu and Hindu names accepting and supporting such Cyber-conversion, evidently without understanding the implications. Thus, it appears that Vatican has incorporated Cyber-mission in its agenda and there would be more Roberto de Nobilis, Beschis, Bede Griffiths, Hans Staffners, Clooneys, and so on with laptops with wireless internet connections. Of course, they started already.

 Definition of Cyber-crusade / Holy-War / Jihad: John Edmiston discussed about, “Missions in Cyberspace: The Strategic Front-Line Use Of The Internet In Missions“, in www.cybermissions.org. He claims: “One of these means is the use of theInternet. And one of the most exhilarating frontiers of mission today is cyber-missions; the frontline use of IT to evangelize and disciple the nations. In this article we will keep the focus on cross-cultural mission web sites and strategic approaches to ministry online such as web-evangelism, email discipleship, web-based TEE and icafes as a church-planting strategy. This paper will review the potential, the actual uses and the successful implementation of Internet-based missionary outreach and put the case for missionary societies to have an Internet evangelism department headed by a Field Director – Cyberspace. I have intentionally excluded the traditional uses of computing in missions or the use of the Internet for mono-cultural ministry as this has already been extensively reviewed elsewhere (for instance in the work of Leonard Sweet)” [the key words are given in colour].

 Hindus untochables or experts in Cyber-religion? Can Hindus match for this? Are they prepared to take? Yes, definitely, Hindus are capable considering the IT workers and experts in the field. But, the Christians think differently, if all these Hindu guys and girls are converted, what would happen to Hindu religion? Yes, with single stroke, they can strategically enslave the Cyber-untochables and John Daya & Co., would start fighting for them also starting a Cyber-Dalit Liberation Front, All India Cyber-SC-ST Federation for which D’Souza, Udit Raj and others  might be President, Secretary and so on sending reports to Bush, Bill Gates, Vatican, UN and what not.

 They give figures like this: Online Language Populations (September 2002): 

English 36.5%;Chinese 10.9%,

Japanese 9.7%,

Spanish 7.2%,

German 6.7%,

Korean 4.5%,
Italian 3.8%,
French 3.5%,Portuguese 3.0%,

Russian 2.9%,

Dutch 2.0% (Source: Global Reach)

We should have corresponding figures for users in Hindi, Tamil and other languages.The English includes, Hindu users also.

 

Warning – the anti-Hindu groups would gang together: Of course, they tie-up with Muslims, secularists, atheists, anti-Hindu groups etc., or they themselves create such web-missions with such names and attack Hindus by all means. Then, they would have MOU with non-Catholic evangelists of US and EURO countries with the respective Presidents agreeing with the Pope, the Head of Vatican City-State. As the anti-Hindu groups irrespective of their ideologies, gang together on stages in every meeting, seminar or conference, so also they join to attack.

 

The treatment of Hindu-men under Christian cyber-masters / employers: As the employers are Christians, they have already started pressure on Hindu IT workers and experts. Slowly, it would turn in different direction. When one young Indian software engineer went to US and working there, his fellow Americans used to ask him about the “sandal paste mark” on his forehead etc. Though, he used to give general explanation for their understanding, they used to argue with religious vigor. After some days, one of Americans gave him a Bible, asked to him to read and come for discussion. This is very similar to what has been happening in gulf-countries, where the sheik-masters used to try with Hindu-professionals.

 The treatment of Hindu-girs and women under Christian cyber-masters / employers: With Hindu girls and women, they behave differently. Starting with commenting on their mode of dress, colour etc., slowly, they praise about their beauty and so on. Of course, the Supreme Court judgment and direction about the treatment of women at work places applicable in India would not be applicable there and we do not know as to whether any equivalent Act, Rules or provisions are to check such “women teasing” [I do not want to use eve teasing, as they might take it as a right. Yes, as Jehovah teased Eve, the fundamentalist, fanatic Christians could think that it is their right to tease women following their Commandment of God].

 Infiltration into, manipulation of and hacking Internet groups: Some Hindu experts and professionals have been successful enough to bring out facts about Indian history, culture, tradition, heritage and civilization in internet. Reading such websites, many educated and learned students, scholars and even professors have been convinced about the logic and facts presented. After all, none could say other than what one generally accept to say “2 + 2 = 4”. Of course, mathematician experts, number theorists and analysts may disagree, that is healthy, intellectual and highly useful for humanity.

 Be careful about Carcinogenic Cyber Christians: Assessing the success or rather the impact, the Cyber-missions may all out to attack. So they start infiltrated with their cyber-expertise. As virus has been there affecting humanity, it has been there here also and we see the results. So we have to be careful about Carcinogenic Cyber Christians, who may be otherwise known as respectfully hackers and so on. The conversion of Indian civilization to Hindu civilization might be the reason for such cyber-invasion and infiltration.

 Hindus should not be just satisfied with Virtual pujas, Bajans, philosophy etc: Now, many Hindus are interested in Computers, Internet etc., because, they get wonderful-colourful pictures of Gods and Goddesses, Bajan-downloads, virtual pujas with all paraphernalia and so on.

 Of course, there are inter-religious skirmishes, philosophical debates with arrogance as usual, “I am modest treading middle-path or secular” type discussions. Here, over-zealous, pride and arrogant postings should be avoided, as the opponents may use such arguments against Hindus.

 Instead, they can discuss and debate about the rites, rituals and ceremonies conducted by them in different countries, how they differ, why divergence, why such differences are not made to India-criticizing scholars, etc., would be worthwhile.

 Hindus may get many e-mails regularly bombarding them to accept Christ for redemption. Of course from the desperate fundamentalist-fanatic categories, they may get threatening mails like “If you do not accept, you will go to hell” and so on. Of course, Hindus may get pornography also along with Jesus Christ or the Word of God with Satanic temptation! [I am not writing this with any wrong impression on Christians, with the past experience with Christians. My friends and I received hundreds of such letters, pamphlets and books from Christians, when Christian issues were discussed in Indian Express and other journals]. As time and space change, the tactics change but old-habits may not change.

 They may post some issues and divert or lead them to ticklish issues resulting in controversies. They may rehash the same old “Aryan-Dravidian”, anti-Brahmin like stuff. They may make personal attacks as a last resort. Or worst, they would accuse Hindus as “Hindutva-wadis”, “Saffron brigade”, “Hindu fundamentalists”, “Sanga parivar” and so on. Anyway, truth triumphs always.

 That is why I use to say often, we have to identify the Hindu-baiters, Hindu-enemies and Hindu-betrayers, expose them to all and treat them as such, as Hindu society cannot and could not produce or have such elements.

 Oh Hindus be ready.

kkVedaprakash <vedamvedaprakash@…>
To: hinducivilization@yahoogroups.com
Sent: Tuesday, July 31, 2007 8:22:30 PM
Subject: [hc] Hindu Maya and Christian Cyber-missions, evangelism and Implications.

The so-called 300 / 3000 Ramayanas: The Dravidian propaganda

March 6, 2012

The so-called 300 / 3000 Ramayanas: The Dravidian propaganda

 By Sri Vedaprakash, March 16, 2008
 
Note: This topic is again and again brought to the notice of the readers. However, the atheists, the Dravidian propagandists, Communists, Christians and Muslims hiding under such banners again and again rake up the issue without reading Ramayana. Unfortunately, they even do not read what these Ramanujan, Paukla and others have written. Yet, they go on rehash the stuff. Therefore, I have to point out their hollowness to plant such mischievous postings appearing then and there.
Ramayana once again[1]!:Ever since the Sethu-Samuthram controversy has cropped up, the Dravidian ideologists, Karu’s Court Historians[2] and others ganged up together circulating the old-stories as authentic histories. Of course, the propaganda carried on by this hysterical gang has parallel only in Hitler’s camp. Of course, any reader can note it is the Black Parivar[3] and the Red Parivar[4] would very often take the Hitler-stick to beat others, but they do not realize that they have been following only Hitler. Coming to the point, now their main attack has been against Rama and Ramayana and therefore, the Karu’s Court historians started digging up old polemical writings, scurrilous pamphlets and anti-Hindu literature to serve their perverted purpose.

The “Viduthalai” [5] (March 14th and 13th dated), the DK-mouth piece, but with the blessings of Karu has brought out one brief of A. K. Ramanujam’s paper “Three Hundred Ramayanas”. T. R. Balu has made a visit and met Karu on 14th. Therefore, the coincidence can be noted and there would be raking up the issue again. The Communist super intelligent leaders have also started the nonsensical blabbering that Ramayana is myth and so on.

The Dravidian Love for Paula Richman: Recently, the Dravidian protagonists have again started their blasphemy against Sri Rama under the guise of historical research, analytical wisdom, Aryan-Dravidian race hypotheses[6] , their (Aryan-Dravidian) continuous struggle-for- ever in India and other ideologies. Incidentally, now, one way or the other, as they have drawn attention to Paula Richman’s book, “Many Ramayanas”, it is imperative to read what exactly, she mentions about the subject, which has been so fascinated to these atheist rabble-rousers. I have read the book carefully and particularly, the interpretations, many times to understand the psyche behind it. Actually, the whole story has not been new Indian scholars, researchers and at least, those who know about the origin of Ramayana[7]. A. K. Ramanujam’s paper[8] “Three Hundred Ramayanas” appears in “Many Ramayanas” of Paula Richman.

The book is nothing but compilation of articles of different personalities, purportly to look into the diversity of a narrative tradition in South Asia. Narrative, rendering, oral tradition, from oral to writing and vice versa, translation etc., can be entertained only literary criticism, when such liberality of literature is there in a society. Where, the thought process is control, such exercise cannot be undertaken. In fact, in many non-Indian societies, such narrative, rendering, oral tradition, from oral to writing and vice versa, translation etc., had been done away long back. Even today in the so-called modern, civilized, advanced, progressed, etc., times, such exercise is not possible in other non-Indian literature. Therefore, the literary critics should understand and appreciate the nuances, before criticizing the “many Ramayanas” or sending wrong signals.

Paula Richman has stories of A. K. Ramanujan, Frank E. Reynolds, Kathleen E. Erndl, David Shulman, Velcheru Narayan Rao, Clinton Seely, Staurt H. Blackburn, Paula Richman, Patricia Y. Mumme, Philip Lutgendorf, and Ramdas Lamb discuss about such narratives etc., and it appears as English rendering of any Tamil Pattimandram discussing the very old questions of mutilation of Surpanaka, Sita’s fire ordeal, etc. Unfortuinately, the sole aim of the compilation appears to deride, disparage and denigrate by choosing the topic under the guise research with historical camouflage.

300 or 3000 Ramayanas?: That there are “300 Ramayanas” as exactly counted has not been the original idea of A. K. Ramanujan, but, as he himself confessed that it belongs to one “student of Ramayana”, Canille Bulcke[9], who only counted so – exactly 300! Then to add his contribution, A. K. Ramanujan mentions[10] that according to a Kannada scholar[11] there are more than a thousand Ramayanas in Kannada! Then, adds that according to a Telugu scholar[12] there are more than a thousand Ramayanas in Telugu! At least, the Telugu scholar appears to be probably reasonable, as he said “more than a thousand”! It is not known why the learned scholar stops with, as he could have consulted Malayali scholar, Marathi scholar, Oriya scholar, Bengali scholar, Gujarathi scholar, Rajasthani scholar, Hindi scholar, Kashmiri scholar and so on.

So here, the point is that Ramayana story has been so popular among every society of the ancient civilizations and accepted by the members of different societies, each member wanted to recognize and transform such Ramayana character to the identified members of society or vice versa for exhibiting similar or same characteristics. When one asks, “Ey, why are you sleeping like Kumbakarna?” , it does not imply that his brother is like Ravana and so on. It has been used figuratively to drive out the point as such characterization has been known to everybody. Thus, he cannot be considered to have created one more Ramayana!

The so-called freedom of thought expression and opinion: The existence of 300 or 3,000 or 30,000 Ramayanas has been the credit to the popularity of Ramayana as a human-literature, Universal literature long back and it does not discredit as the existence of more Bibles[13] or Quarans or Korans[14], as the very mention would be anathema. Perhaps, the persons, who talk about “300 Ramayanas” do not know the existence of more Bibles or Korans., but the faithful believers destroyed many or all according to their own estimate and accounting and finally have one “printed version”, declared as infallible and revealed through God as the “Word of God”, so none could change anything thereafter. But they do not explain why there were hundreds of Bibles and Korans and why they were destroyed. How they could have selected the existing version only as the exact tract as revealed to their respective prophets to be accepted as authentic and authorized. How such divine grace had descended on the chosen group to decide and do accordingly.

Indians have not leaned the art of editing, expurging and interpolation of verses of books, as done by the non-Indians. They have not learned the art of destruction of earlier, differing or opposing versions and to claim that this is the only “Authorized version” or “Revealed Book”.

The Arabic tradition of rendering Poetry and Koran: The Arabic tradition has been that the Arabic poets would only recite their poems, be listened and enjoyed and appreciated by others and they were never written down. Particularly, in the case of Koran, it was strongly believed that as it was revealed by Allah through Jibreal / Gabriel to the Prophet Mohammed (PBCH), it has to be learned by heart by listening to the recital by the experts. There had / have been groups exclusively for the purpose of recital of Koran. Only later, the writing down of Koran and its translation into other non-Arabic languages started. As Ibn Warraq has elaborately dealt with about it, it is not discussed here. In fact, Mohammed Mamaduke Picthall[15] in his foreword clearly records the following points:

1.. It may be reasonably claimed that no Holy Scriptures can be fairly presented by one who disbelieves its inspiration and its message.
2.. The Koran cannot be translated. That is the belief of old-fashioned sheikhs and the view of the present writer (H. M. Pitchall).
3.. …the Glorious Koran, that inimitable symphony, the very sounds of which move men to tears and ecstasy.

In India, the society has been liberal, democratic and egalitarian, so the members have liberty to pursue their literary pursuits. Thus, they make one God to many Gods; make male and female Gods with child God also; many times lover; employer and slave; chieftain, king and emperor and so on. It increases his thinking and creativity. The painter and sculptors too follow such pattern and depict Gods and Goddesses accordingly. This is the real freedom of thought, expression, and exhibition of artistic talent. That is why the negative characterization is opposed and condemned. Nowadays, it has become fashion for elite artists, eminent historians and social activists to come out and support such errant perverts, but it is not correct, as could be seen. For example, A cannot of sleeping with B’s wife, just because, he has the freedom of thinking. Having such freedom of thinking, he cannot express openly to B, because he has freedom of expression. As B too have such rights and starts exercise his rights of freedom of thought and expression the consequences are well known. Therefore, there are individual rights which should not violate the rights of others. If this fundamental is not known or knowingly, continuously violated, definitely the peaceful people may react one day. Therefore, it is better to live amicably instead of provoking others. In such situations and conditions, only the provoking forces are barbaric, medieval, lumpen and so on.

Any other world literature does not have such elasticity, flexibility, liberality, democracy, egalitarianism proves that they are controlled and suppressed. Therefore, there cannot be any freedom of thought, expression and opinion entertained in such societies. Even, there is no freedom to tell the fact that there were 300 / 3000 Bibles and Korans, but they were destroyed and now there is only one! Here, Salman Rusdie and H. F. Hussain can be contrasted in the context; Ibn Warraq and EVR; Karunanidhi and Taslima Nasreen; Bertrand Russell and Thomas Paine; and so on.

Ramayana characters could be human beings of any age: As mentioned, because of the flexibility of the characterization of Ramayana, it is applicable to any time and place. Ramayana and Mahabharata are played everywhere by the people with their available men and materials. Therefore, in such depiction, dramatization and adapted-rendering, there would variance in all aspects. Taking these literary critics cannot make big fuss out of it. Now Rama and Ravana may come with pants and shirts also. If it becomes, popular, it would be carried on enjoyed by a group. Can it we say, it is 301th Ramayana or 3001th? Yes, it is correct, “as long as there are many Ramas, there would be more Ramayanas”.

But no other literature could be subjected to such process, as in the non-Indian tradition, the very such thought might be unthinkable. We cannot have many non-Indian heroes or Gods. Can Paula Richman produce an edition of “Many Bibles”, “Many Qurans”, like that or any narratives and oral traditions of Jesus, Mary, Joseph, Mohammed, Fatima etc.(just for example, it is asked). Believers of the respective lands and countries know the existence of such narratives, renderings and oral traditions available here and there, but Paula cannot compile. Why even the New Testament apocrypha or Hadis renderings are not discussed, debated and papers presented.

Who can analyze the non-Indian characters (including heroes and heroines, deified heroes and heroines and Gods and Goddesses themselves), criticize or justify their acts of omission or commission, and bring all renderings along with Thomas Paine, Robert Ingersol, Salmon Rushdie, Taslima Nasreen etc. Even Tembavani[16] and Sirappuranam[ 17] cannot be rendered in English, as the orthodox might oppose some verses. In fact, they had already objected to “Kesadhipada varnanai” (= the Tamil traditional narrative of a woman character whoever may be from head to feet, part by part) and removed such verses. Therefore, without going into the details, the western scholars go on commit blunders under the guise of research and it is totally wrong. They should ponder over. As they have big-big University labels, our Dravidian friends immediately, take their renderings and they produce their own renderings to blaspheme Hindus. Here only, the problem comes.

SUN-TV and Ramayana: In SUN-TV group of companies, Karunanidhi and his family members have shares. So why SUN-TV all of sudden start broadcasting “Ramayana”, that too, the much hated, criticized and blasphemed one. Why not the “Ravana Kaviyam” of Kulandai? It is promoted, looked. Loved and considered as “divine” by the Dravidian protagonists including Karnanidhi. He has already accepted that he supports Ravana and he belongs to such clan! Of course, even Kalainjar TV cannot be prevented in broadcasting Ramayana or Mahabhrata, but what about the ideology? They cannot abuse Hindus and cater them with this tamasha. They cannot kill Hindu culture and do this nonsense. They cannot soil the sanctity of temples and try to do some gimmicks. Of course, we know they do not follow the dictum of “Padippathu Ramayanam, idippathu Pillaiyar koil”, but, they meddle with Ramayana and demolish the Temple of Ramayana. That is why now the target is Ramar-palam!

References

[1] Today when I started typing this, SUN-TV of the Black Parivar has started broadcasting “Ramayana”! Even Kalainjar TV broadcast Ramayana!

[2] Vedaprakash, Why Tamilnadu Historians tell lies?, http://www.indiainteracts. com

[3] DK-DMK-PMK-Viduthal ai Puligar, their affiliated parties, associations and ideological subsidiaries.

[4] Al Communists parties CPI-CPI(M), CPI (ML) their affiliated parties, associations and ideological subsidiaries.

[5] It is only summarized one, of course with abusive language used characteristically in the Tamil translation.

[6] In spite of the fact that the Aryan-Dravidian hypotheses and Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT) have been proved unhistorical and baseless, these ideologists continue to believe and carry on the propaganda and rouse passion in the same language as they used to speak some 40 to 60 years back.

[7] In the Journals of Royal Asiatic society, All India Oriental Conference and others, enough has been discussed and debated about Valmiki Ramayana and the Jain and Buddhist version of their Ramayanas.

[8] A. K. Ramanujam, “Three Hundred Ramayanas”, Many Ramayanas, edited by Paula Richman, 1991, University of California Press, USA, pp.22-49.

[9] A. K. Ramanujam, opt.cit, p.24.

[10] Ibid, however, he does not mention the name of the Kannada scholar who could count exactly 1000!

[11] This “According to….” makes one remember, “The Gospel according to St. Matthew”, “The Gospel according to St. Mark”, “The Gospel according to St. Luke”, “The Gospel according to St. John”, and so on!

[12] Ibid, here also, he does not mention the name of the Telugu scholar who could count more than 1000!

[13] H. G. G. Herklots, How the Bible Came to us?, Penguin Books, UK, 1959.

[14] Ibn Warraq, Why I am not a Muslim, Promethecus Books, New York, 1995, p.20, 73-76.

[15] Mohammed Mamaduke Picthall, The Meaning of the holy Quran, Crescent Publishing Company , New Delhi,

[16] A Tamil literary work produced on the lines of or rather imitating Kamba Ramayanam.

[17] A Tamil literary work produced on the lines of or rather imitating Kamba Ramayanam, but some Mohammedans claim that it is even superior to Kamba Ramayana, of course, they do not talk about the editing, expunction and removal verses and other modifications done.

Historians: Mythistory, Historical myths and Historiography in India

July 16, 2009
Historians: Mythistory, Historical myths and Historiography in India
Published on October 20th, 2007 In Uncategorized, Politics |  Views 1286
Historians: Mythistory, Historical myths and Historiography in IndiaThe Communist historians posing as “master of all arts”: K. N. Panikkar1, the rabid communist and Red Parivar fundamentalist has been out with his brigade and arsenal to attack the noble subject of history and historiography with professionally biased, ideologically corrupted and historically perverse duplicity. He follows Romila Thapar2 sincerely and faithfully without any historical sincerity, epistemological honesty and historiosophic faith, though, in his determination to write about politicization of history. Now, his new venomic dosage has poured in the form of “Myth, history and politics” with due accommodation in the propagandist communist mouth-piece of “Frontline”3.

Suraj Bhan4, the Babri-archaeologist says, “Government should have stood by ASI”. Ironically, he sided with the communal and divisive forces of BMAC at that time. More irony was that the BMAC was producing EVR books as evidence to the government. He now goes to assert that archaeology has nothing to do with religion. But it is archaeology, those archaeological evidences, which decides the fate of religion. He need not come out about the NASA pictures now, as archaeologists or scientists never opine, as do now, when the pictures were published in media and discussed widely. At that time itself, the scientific community could have openly asserted that it was only a ridge made of coral reef and so on.

Earlier, the eminent historian, Romila Thapar had the audacity of questioning the so-called “Hindutwa judgment” and declared, “We will file appeal in the Supreme Court”. But nothing happened. This had been a glaring example of historians meddling with religious sentiments, and judicial judgments.

“    So why these retired, senile, old-aged historians off and on, come out and roar and sleep like this?

“    Why they want to pretend to be “master of all arts or subjects”?

“    Are they really sincere in pursuing such path or just write something, get money and keep quite?

Indians are forced to study them carefully for their exhibited behaviour5 (shouting, fighting and beating during the business sessions of IHC, SIHC etc), eccentric statements and claims (that we would appeal to Supreme Court) and occasional explosive writings [as appearing in the Hindu, Frontline, EPW, Murasoli (mouth-piece of the militant anti-Hindu DMK) etc]. How the persons of various disciplines should be evidently ganged against one particular religious believers, religion and their belief system? Is it coincidence or orchestrated war against them? What is right or wrong with them?

Politicization of Ayodhya – the Myth and Reality: While the people of Ayodhya have started cursing BJP and Sangh Parivar for forsaking the issue, the Red gang at Faizabad tried to interpret differently6. But the local people who have been living there for thousands of years do not believe the communists. At one time, they have even driven away them and warned that they would not vote for them again (ironically, the people of Faizabad in which Ayodhya is situated elected Communist).

Had they known that these communist historians are propagating another myth that “Ayodhya” was in Afghanistan7, even local Muslims would have thrashed them out for “talibanization of Indian history”8. The people of Ayodhya have been angry with politicians, ideologists and government, as they have been disturbed, troubled and harassed by them always. Whenever, any problem is there, they land down to get sensational news and disappear.

But the continuing tradition, age-old worship, people participation in the festivals, fairs and celebrations have been curtailed by the government under the guise of security. So why the Red Parivar (Communists of all sorts), the Black Parivar (the atheist-politicians of all sorts) and the Green Parivar (not elsewhere specified) want to remember Rama?

The local Hindus and Muslims blame all, as they have lost their land, the traditional places of festivals and fairs, terribly disturbed by the police and security forces, as they could not carry out their routines, periodic festivals and fairs. Tourism, fairs and festivals only bring money for livelihood there. As they live on such fairs and festivals and now they are restricted and even banned, thousands of people of Ayodhya have been affected greatly. Their grievance has been two-fold –

  1. As BJP and Sangh Parivar forgotten Rama and Ayodhya, the people coming to Ayodhya has stopped and
  2. because of government restriction, terrorist attack etc., the strength of tourists coming there has also dwindled down.

They, painfully express that nowadays, people are afraid of Ayodhya, because of the politicization. Have historians noted this point? The mythologization of history of Ayodhya has only brought harm to the people and not any benefit. The fight of archaeologists9 at WAC-3 only exposed the Communal, fundamentalist, fanatic, ideologically oriented archaeologists and not any real archaeologists who work for the benefit or welfare of Indians.

Now, the Politicization of Rameswaram: The same thing has started happening at Rameswaram and the sacred spot Sethu-samuthram. For thousands of years, the Hindus have been faithfully going there coming from extreme north and north-west and even from foreign countries to have holy-dip at the Dhanuskoti. On every auspicious day, there would be lakhs and thousands of people gathering there to carry out their duties without any publicity.  It is not myth that every place, spot and even stones and earth there are named after Ramayanic characters, episodes and happenings, as no historian or mythologist has taught them to do so.

\    If there is no Rama and Ramayana, where is Rameswaram?

\    Can these archaeologists and historians could find pr suggest another name for this place?

\    How the engaged responsible scientists and others without consciousness, honesty and integrity, mention as “Adam-bridge” now in official documents and writings even in the science journals10?

\     Then, why can’t they change the name to Adam-samuthram Project instead of Setu-samuthram project?

\    With such mind-set, have they any morality or moral right to sit in the Committee?

But now, the politicians, engineers, workers and others have landed in gangs and started disturbing, troubling and harassing the locals. Not only the pilgrims even the locals have been annoyed by their behaviour and activities.

If Rama is not there, there is no Rameswaram. But the historians, politicians and the non-believing atheist evidently anti-Hindu have been out to attack the innocent Hindus. Still millions of Hindus do not know that their monument has already been subjected to demolition in the name of progress, project, and money-making political contracts where more than 2500 crores are involved.

So now, it has been the atheist DMK who wants to be in power blackmailing and extracting from the Congress, who are ironically supported by the very Communist crones of treachery. The political power brokers have ganged together under the guise of bastardized alliance burying their ideologies only with the aim of amassing crores through commissions, contracts and postings. They do not have anything for India, or anything connected with
India. Why then, they have ganged together to rule? So the intention has been very clear to loot the people under the name of pseudo-secularism, political fundamentalism and alliance gangsterism.

So their slaves and agents of historians, paid-writers and pert-journalists have no other business from their slumber, but suddenly wake up and start writing about Rama, Ramayana etc., in the accommodative papers and journals. Why the duplicity? And what these historians talk and write about?

Filing and withdrawal of Affidavits: An “affidavit” has been a sworn statement submitted to any legal or quasi-judicial; forum by the applicant or respondent in the involved case or dispute with usual appendage, “I do hereby solemnly affirm and say that the statements contained in the foregoing petition are true to my knowledge”. Generally, a lawyer or advocate would draft it taking facts from their client. After approval of the client, it would be vetted by the senior advocate and filed on the judicial forum. What is the role of historians or archaeologists here, that too, not connected with the case? If there has been any legal lacuna or deviation, even if one is not advocate or party, it can be pointed out for rectification.

Remember the affidavit and petition filed by one Chandamal Chopra11 in Calcutta High Court on June 18th, 1985 – popularly known as “Calcutta Quran petition”? Why these Communist historians were sleeping when it happened from their citadel? Even though, the petition and review petition filed by Chandamal Chopra was dismissed by the Judge Bimal Chandra Basak, the Court documents tell the history.

Take another classical case of Sri Ramakrishna Mission claiming minority status12 in the very same Calcutta High Court! What happened? Yes, the so-called Hindutwa Mission found by the communal Swami Vivekananda was declared as minority Institution by the Calcutta High Court! What these historians were doing at that time? Where Romila was roaming, Panikkar was poking or prowling upon and Suraj was snoozing? The affidavits did not bother them? They did not know the history or fooling the people of India?

Why “the only nationalist newspaper”,  “The Hindu” and the communist “Frontline” did not come out with articles questioning the affidavits, history, faith, myth, fusion etc., involved in the above cases? Why archaeologists like Suran Bhan did not come out to rescue archaeology or history or at least to suggest the government, as he doing now?

Why historians are sleeping and awakening suddenly? If these historians are committed to the historical cause with historicity in their minds, they should be consistent with every similar issue. They should be conscious, vigil, and awakened all the times and come out with their articles in The Hindu, EPW or frontline. But, they are active only when “Rama” is involved.

V     Why can’t their historical consciousness and historical thinking question the historicity of Jehovah, Allah, Jesus, Christ, Mary, Mohammed,
Fatima and their connected events and happenings? 13

V     Location of their places of birth, so-journ and death?

V     Archaeology of such places? 14

As India is a secular state and the festivals of them are imposed on majority Hindus, all Indians have every right to know why Christmas, Easter, Miladi-nabi, Bakrid, and other festivals are celebrated15. The Hindus and true-secularists are bewildered and perplexed as to why the Muslims and Christians are greeted whenever their festivals are celebrated? Or their gods days of birth and death are celebrated, whereas that of others, particularly, the Hindus are neglected?

M  Why myth, history, faith, fusion etc., work differently here?

M  Why this variance in the approach of historians?

M  Is it historically allowed or hysterically followed?

M  Why methodology differs?

M  Why scientific temper in history fails?

M  Why secularism too stops working?

M  Why multivocal existence, folklore tradition, narrations of Bibles, Quarans etc., are not talked about?

M  If myth represent reality but represent it symbolically and metaphorically yet masking reality, why such myths are not told to secular Indians?

Thus, it is evident that these archaeologists and historians have been totally dishonest, corrupt, and perverse by being partial, biased and prejudiced. Definitely, these qualities are not for good historians. Hiding their cunningness and manipulative shrewdness, they now declare that they need not have any objectivity in history. As in the west, here there have not been any wagers for mythologization of history or historification of myth, but still, unofficial war is waged6 by the Communal Communist forces calling others as communal ands so on!

Of course, they might have done good work some 20-30 years back, but now, their psyche and mind-set are revealed and definitely, Indians cannot expect any historically faithful writings from them.

6      And they would continue to write like this with the same trend of faith, fusion, etc., creating “mythistory” 17 in Indian fooling millions of students of schools and colleges.

6      Can any responsible parent of
India allow these horrible and horror historians to write text-books for our children to read and become fundamentalists, fanatics and terrorists of new brand under the guise of pseudo-secularism, secular-fundamentalism and mythistory?

Myth, history, mythistory: Historically “myth” is not false, untruth or non-existent, in historical context at a particular historical time and historical place. Thus, historical myths are not opposed to historical facts, as from such myths only, the facts are culled out, grouped, analyzed and results are drawn for interpretation. Without myth or at least believing in myth, no archaeologist could proceed in his field study. He cannot locate any mound to start his dig.

History is not what is or has been or will be written but it is really what has or had happened in the past. In such understanding the past, historians cannot compel, dictate and force people with their own yardstick or scale

6      If historian says that your God is only 1000 years old or 2000 years old, that is his understanding of past, as the living tradition proves beyond doubt that certain people have been knowing that God for at least more than 4000 years. So historian fails in this simple case.

6      Historian says that one particular civilization has been illiterate and thus pre-historical in spite of their technology exhibited through material evidences excelling the present. Here also he fails miserably without understanding the facts.

6      He is creating a myth that only people with writing, that too that writing preserved and shown to them would be accepted as historical.

6      The limitation of understanding the past, misunderstanding or not-understanding of facts through material evidence, non-acceptance of available material evidence in historical perspectives etc., are only weaknesses of historians and not fault of such evidences. Here also historians create their myth.

6      If reconstruction of history is not possible with available constructive evidences, then, they cannot question the re-writing historians, adamantly, as again, they are creating a myth – the might of fascism that they can only write history and others cannot.

The historiography or rather historiographies of the pre-Christian or post-Christian, the pre-Mohammedan or post-Mohammedan, pre-Islamic or post-Islamic, pre-colonial or post-colonial interpretations, bias and prejudice at global level has been accepted one. The Indian history and historiography has been the adversely affected by all such impositions, censorship and professional bias-system operated and has been operating even today at different levels. Common Indians are not able to understand as to why these historians of all the above groups are ganged together and act against them? It is not the question of “Right” or “Left” but “Right” or “Wrong”. Indians cannot accept if “Right” is given by the “Right” or “Left”, or “wrong” is forced on them by the same categories. If both have problem in choosing which is right or wrong, Indians are not responsible for that, as they have books written and preserved in spite of the Muslim and Christian onslaught of destruction and carrying away the manuscripts and palm-leaf books ad other valuable historical evidences.

Unfortunately, Indian historical scholarship started reflecting some set of political or ideological groups degenerating into propaganda serving their political masters. The Congress has evidently nurtured the Communist or Marxist brand of historians since Nehru and they have been enjoying the postings in many historical and historian forums.

Politicians, historians, scientists and Adam-bridge: Now, we see not only historians, but also scientists have been ganged up with them. All have been under the control of politicians. They would have already sworn affidavit with their political masters. How then, they would faithfully come out with their professional expertise? When about one billion believers call it as “Ram-sethu”, these chosen numbers have audacity to mention as “Adam-bridge”, like Babri-Masid! Why such selective or specific bias on the part of scientists and experts?

It is obvious, the Communist historians may also get a share in the form of VC, members, directors in the thousands of Government controls academies, institutes etc., where they get income regularly with other regular facilities.

Appeal to Historians, scientists and politicians: If you want to earn money, go on build bridges in the city and towns. You can build two or more at required points or at non-required points, No problem. Lay four-track, six-track roads for MNCs, you get crores of rupees as commission. You can get funds from ADB, World Bank, American Bank, Communist Bank, Islamic Bank (perhaps without interest) etc., without bringing Rama. Shellout all agricultural lands to MNCs, no problem. Develop SEZs, kill people, immediately, you can bring revolution! Forget Rama and Sethu-samuthram project.

You can share with your scientists and historians by engaging them as “consultants”. Of course, corporate corruption always accommodates “consultants”, just like The Hindu, Frontline etc., accommodating communal communist historians. Do not taking Ayodhya to Afghanistan and Lanka to Madhyapreadesh or elsewhere, by actual talibanization of history.

The Indian politicians – please do play with the communist cronies and encouraging them to goon and spin mythistory. Do not try to wage war against innocent people of
India.

N     By calling Rama a myth, a drunkard and so on, what you are going to achieve? We know you people always drink.

N     Can you get the status of Rama?

N     Or can you become a Rama?

N     By saying that my leader name is Ramaswamy, can any fool would believe that you are so friendly to Rama?

N     Do not you think that you are creating myth like roaming Romila, puny Pankkar and sullying Suraj?

Leave Rama to Ramabaktas, they are capable of taking care of him. Do not worry about Ayodhya or Lanka. Be happy with Ravana.

Notes and References

1.     K. N. Panikkar, a former professor of history, at Jawaharlal Nehru University and a former-vice-chancellor of Sree Sankarayacharya University of Sanskrit (sic), is currently the chairman of the Kerala Council of Historical Research. In IHC sessions, he used to give lectures in the evenings officially and unofficially to the Communist and Muslim groups separately.

2.     Romila Thapar, “Where fusion cannot work – faith and history” (the Hindu, dated September 28, 2007).

…………………., Historical Memory without History, in Economic and Political weekly, VOL 42 No. 39 September 29 – October 05, 2007, pp.3903-3905

3.     K. N. Panikkar, Myth, history and politics, Frontline, October 5, 2007, pp.21-24.

4.     Suraj Bhan, “Government should have stood by ASI”, Ibid, pp.19-20.

5.     It is very common during the sessions IHC. During business session of 51st session held atCalcutta in 1990, the members were about to clash with each other, but three delegates from Tamilnadu virtually-physically forced them apart. During the dinner hosted at the lawns of Victoria Memorial Building, the delegates all historians, professors etc., fall on the food without any discipline. The same three
Madras delegates came to rescue asking them to come in line to take their food.

K. Chitra Rao, Indian History Congress, a letter appearing in the Hindu dated December 10, 1991. It gives the gist of what happened at the Calcutta session. Of course, it has been edited version.During Warangal session, Bipan Chandra got angry and started shouting creating ugly scene during the session.

6.     A documentary film shown on Ayodhya few months back from 10 to 10.30 am.

7.     A delegate from Aligarh Muslim University presented a paper locating Ayodhya at Afghanistan during the IHC session held at Bhopal.

8.     The expression “Talibanization of history” has been used by the Christian-Communist-Muslim-atheist historian groups against the so-called Hindutwa historians, but in action, they are indulging in such “talibanization”. The accusers themselves enhaged in the action of the “accused”!

9.     World Archaeology Conference (WAC-3) held at New Delhi has been a blot on Indian archeology and history, as the so-called archaeologists openly fought with each other exposing their ugly minds.

10.  P. Seralathan, Disposal of dredge spoil from Sethusamudhram Ship Channel Project, Currenmt Science, Vol.90, No.2, January 25, 32006, pp.146-147.

11.  Sita Ram Goel, The Calcutta Quran Petition, Voice of India, New Delhi, 1986.

12.  Sri Ramakrishna Mission, founded by Sri Swamy Vivekananda, filed a petition in Calcutta High Court claiming “minority” status as a “non-Hindu. However, the Supreme Court held it as “Hindu”!

13.  A cursory browsing in the net gives you thousands of sites with facts.

14.  See “Bible and Archeology” books in the net. The general policy of the government has been, if evidences supporting Bible are found, funds would be given, otherwise no.

15.  Earlier for Miladunabi, etc., holiday was not there. But after V. P. Singh, communalization has crept into even in the declaration of “Government hoilidays”. Thus, as expected, the birth day of Mohammed is a holiday always, whereas that of Rama or
Krishna is not a holyday!

16.  Jerry H. Bentley, Myths, Wagers, and Some Moral Implications of World History, in Jounal of World History, Vol.16, No.1. Available in the following site: http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/cite.cgi?=jwh/16.1/bentley.html

17.  The word “mythistory” was used by K. V. Ramakrishna Rao in his writings during 1983. However, it is claimed that McNeill used it connoting, “a form of knowledge about the past that relies on the techniques of professional historical scholarship but also draws inspiration from perspectives that offer idealized visions of a community and endow its historical accounts with meaning”.

William H. McNeill, “Mythistory, or Truth, Myth, History, and Historians,” American Historical Review 91 (1986): 1–10;

…………………….., Mythistory and Other Essays (Chicago, 1986), pp. 3–22.

………………………….., “Mythistory,” p. 7. For an elaboration that perhaps represents what McNeill had in mind for his ecumenical world history, see J. R. McNeill and William H. McNeill, The Human Web: A Bird”s-Eye View of World History (New York, 2003).