Archive for the ‘rationalism’ Category

The “Social Media Conclave” of Tamil Nadu Young Thinkers Forum held on Nomber 18th, 2017 in Chennai (2)!

November 21, 2017

The “Social Media Conclave” of Tamil Nadu Young Thinkers Forum held on Nomber 18th, 2017 in Chennai (2)!

Tamilnadu Young Thinkers Forum, 2017.second session

The second session: The second panel saw Thirunavakarasu, Deputy Commissioner of Police, Intelligence speaking on how the police use social media to help keep people safe. He also mentioned how the fig leaf of anonymity is not as true as people believe, and that the police can track abusers and anti-social elements in social media within no time at all. Other speakers spoke about how ministers such as Mrs. Sushma Swaraj use social media for responding to crises and suggested that ministers and bureaucrats in Tamil Nadu could adopt such best practices. Panelists on Citizen Participation in Governance and Role of Social Media were :

  1. Sumanth Raman – television anchor and commentator.
  2. Thirunavakarasu – Deputy Commissioner, Intelligence, Chennai City Police.
  3. Kiruba Shankar – Blogger and Social media professional.
  4. Sailesh Davey and Srikanth of Chennaiyil Oru Mazhaikalam.
  5. Anand C. P. – Founder of Satya Vijayi

Tamilnadu Young Thinkers Forum, 2017.second session.audience

Second session audience-LHS

audience view-18-11-2017

Second session, audience- RHS

Third session - 18-11-2017

The third and last session: The last panel on enhancing the quality of public discourse in social media in Tamil Nadu articulated the futility of trying to control social media, as the users come from very diverse backgrounds. Some well-thought-through advice also came through in this session. The first was to ignore provocative trolling, as any such response only begets further trolling. One should seek timely police intervention when the line of privacy is crossed and social media abuse spills over to real life. The panelists urged users not to trust everything they see on social media and to use social media constructively as a fact-checking medium. Panelists on Enhancing Quality of Public Discourse in Social Media were :

  1. Dhanya Rajendran – Editor-in-chief, The News Minute;
  2. Anand Ranganathan – Author, Consulting editor, and Columnist, News Laundry;
  3. Chinmayi Sripaada – Singer
  4. Banu Gomes – Political Analyst and Social Activist

Fourth session-18-11-2017

Makandeya Kaju discussed some of the issues[1]: He has been participating in the social media and media debates and presenting his views on many issues. Just for convenience, his views are taken here in the context[2]:

Supreme Court Judge says that her daughters are liabilities

Twisting facts: One of the defects is that the media often twist facts. I would like to give an example. One day, a leading English newspaper published on its front page a photograph of Justice Gyan Sudha Misra of the Supreme Court with the caption: “Supreme Court Judge says that her daughters are liabilities.” This was a distorted and fallacious item of news, published on the front page. Supreme Court Judges have to disclose their assets and liabilities. Against the liabilities column, Justice Misra had written: “two daughters to be married.” Strictly speaking, it was not necessary to mention this because liabilities mean legal liabilities, for example, housing loan, car loan, and so on. Justice Misra’s intention was obviously to say that she would have to spend on her daughters’ future marriage. She has three daughters (no son), only one of whom has been married. Justice Misra never said, nor intended to say, that her daughters were liabilities. The news was false and defamatory, with the obvious intention of creating a sensation.

Paid news- EPW article

Paid news: A second defect concerns the issue of paid news that has become prominent of late. In the 2009 elections, it was a scandal. How this vicious practice could be stopped needs to be discussed. Incidentally, in compliance with an order of the Chief Information Commissioner dated September 19, 2011, we have placed the 71-page report of the Committee consisting of Paranjoy Guha Thakurta and Sreenivas Reddy on our website, with the disclaimer that the Press Council had rejected this report at its meeting held on April 26, 2010.

Paid news- how it works

Non-issues as real issues: A third defect is that the media often portray non-issues as real issues, while the real issues are sidelined. The real issues in India are economic, that is, the terrible economic conditions in which 80 per cent of our people are living, the poverty, unemployment, lack of housing and medical care and so on. Instead of addressing these real issues, the media often try to divert the attention of people to non-issues.

  1. Such as that the wife of a film actor has become pregnant, whether she will give birth to a single child or to twins, and so on. Are these the real issues facing the nation?
  2. At a Lakme India Fashion Week event, there were 512 accredited journalists covering the event in which models were displaying cotton garments, while the men and women who grew that cotton were killing themselves at a distance of an hour’s flight from Nagpur, in the Vidharbha region. Nobody told that story, except one or two journalists, locally.
  3. No doubt, sometimes the media mention farmers’ suicides, the rise in the price of essential commodities, and so on, but such coverage is at most 5 per cent to 10 per cent of the total. The bulk of the coverage goes to showing the life of film stars, pop music, fashion parades, cricket and astrology.

Tendency to brand: Here is a fourth defect. Bomb blasts have taken place near the Delhi High Court, in Mumbai, Bangalore and so on. Within a few hours of such a bomb blast, many TV channels started showing news items that said that the Indian Mujahideen or the Jaish-e-Mohammed or the Harkatul-Jihad-e-Islam had sent e-mails or text messages claiming responsibility. The names of such alleged organisations will always be Muslim ones. Now, an e-mail can be sent by any mischievous person, but by showing this on TV channels and the next day in the newspapers, the tendency is to brand all Muslims as terrorists and bomb-throwers.

TNYTF-2017- News Today-page-7

How “social media” is manipulated by politicians, business men and ideologists: The following attitude is also not discussed for solution.

  1. Ironically, that the fake news are manufactured by the media houses is accepted by the panelists and responsible activists.
  1. As usual, they only explained nicely the sins, but, have not provided any solutions to remove it.
  1. 50 to 100 and more persons are paid to sit and manipulate “social media” with fake IDs etc., working under the banner of “IT cell”!
  1. No opposite views are encouraged, accepted and hen such views are suppressed or attacked strategically or hacked as last resort.
  1. “I say, you accept” authoritarian attitude is noted. Those who opposed are blocked, hacked and silenced.
  1. The nexus of the politicians, businessmen, cine-field and ideologists is well established and thus, they control the social media.
  1. Even the schools, colleges and universities are manipulated for their business and profits.
  1. Ideologists turned agents demand ransom for their support and hence they go on attack others with one or the other issue.
  1. The media does not discuss important issues of common men, but, always mislead with manufactured data and information.
  1. After cinema, cricket, now, the “social media” has come and people are compelled to join, waste time and get spoiled.

Social media responsibility

What is the use of these conclaves for common men?: Ironically, the crimes committed because of the influence of social media, the girls and women raped through “facebook” courtship and related issues are not discussed. Again, to assess the conclave and the result, question arises, what it has achieved or going to achieve. The educated elite of these categories with safe job, position and status, they would be surviving, whether Modi is in power or not, but, there have been real workers and opportunistic “new comers”, they would be disturbed, if change occurs. While the former suffer heavily, the later would disappear finding way for their business. For ordinary people, all these verbose, ideologies, data and information and nothing is useful. They do not use social media and it cannot reduce prices, but, encourage intellectual stupidity and arrogance thriving on likes and following. The prices of essential commodities are not going to get reduced, when they go on discuss GDP and all. The number of phone users may increase with the profits of the companies. As long as phone is linked with Adhar, ration card and other things, it looks nice, but, if they do not get rice, sugar, oil and other things, they have to die. At that time all these experts cannot do anything.

© Vedaprakash


Social media responsibility-think before you click

[1] The Hindu, Media and issues of responsibility, October 21, 2011 23:21; Updated. September 27, 2016, 02:09 IST.




Alleged conversion of Vaiko to Christianity, the revelation of controversial evangelist Mohan Lazarus and denial by the Periyarist V. Gopalsamy!

November 9, 2017

Alleged conversion of Vaiko to Christianity, the revelation of controversial evangelist Mohan Lazarus and denial by the Periyarist V. Gopalsamy!

Vaiko converted, Lazaraus claimed, The Hindu 08-11-2017

Murderers, dupers and unbelievers converted to Christianity!: Many Christian pastors have been accused of forcefully converting people of other faith, sometimes with stories of the eternal fire of damnation and sometimes with the lure of freebies[1]. But what came as a shock to many was the news of MDMK chief Vaiko’s conversion to Christianity, thus reported Asianet Newsable[2]. But, the reality has been none bothered about it, as Indians know the religious deceptions, pious frauds and divine scams have been going on behind such propaganda. As for as people of Tamilnadu are concerned, they know very well popular and notorious ones like A. V. M. Rajan[3] to Auto Shankar[4] (1954-1995) were converted to Christianity. Actually, Rajan was converted reportedly, as he was having some financial problems. As for as Auto Shankar is concerned, it is well knon that he was a hard-core criminal, rapist and killer of several women, thus, he was hanged. Ironically, the Christians caught hold of him before hanging, converted and promised heaven! It is not known, as to whether the inhuman murderer had gone to hell or “Christian heaven”! In any case, the conversion has not been any grace or honour brought to them or to their religion Christianity.

AVM Rajan and Auto Shankar converted

The conversion news coming out through Social media and media also: Now, news has come out in the mdia explicitly that Vaiko has been converted to Christianity and it has been revealed by one evangelist Mohan C. Lazarus. The videos revealing the conversion and Vaiko attending midnight mass and appreciating Christianiy like a preacher quoting Biblical verses have been in circulation for the last two weeks. Therefore, it was neccecitated Vaiko to clarify his position. The evangelist has been controversial with his rude way of criticizing Modi and ruling BJP. In vernacular media, his controversial acts have also been reported, but, he denied. Now, also, no secularist or Dravidian ideologist has come forward to criticize, analyze or condemn the conversion, alleged conversion, denial etc., in the context.

Mohan Lazarus claims Vaiko family converted

Mohan C Lazarus declares that Vaiko has been converted and he is a Christian!: Vaiyapuri Gopalsamy, also known as Vaiko is the founder and General Secretary of the Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (MDMK), a political party active mainly in the state of Tamil Nadu. The claim of Vaiko converting to Christianity was first made by one of Tamil Nadu’s prominent evangelists Mohan C Lazarus. He also claimed in a video that is being widely circulated on social media that Vaiko was reading the Bible twice a day and regularly visits the Church along with his family. They have been baptized. Lazarus also said that Vaiko’s entire family had converted to Christianity. “His daughter and son-in-law are Christians. They are in the US, and every Sunday, they do the service of God. His wife is a Christian. Since he is in public life, he is not able to announce his new faith. He told me that he was reading Bible two times a day and asked me how to pray and I taught him,” Lazarus claimed in the video[5]. He could have produced the baptism certificate issued for Vaiko.

Vaiko converted to Christianity-09-11-2017-Asianet Newsable

Can any evangelist declare that any Dravidian leader has been converted and become a Christian?: Responding to a recent video of Lazarus, in which he states that Vaiko and his family have undergone baptism and converted to Christianity, MDMK deputy general secretary Mallai Sathya said that Vaiko has not made any announcement of getting converted into Christianity[6]. How then, Lazarus could declare so openly? Speaking to News Today, he said that Vaiko is a secular leader, who is genuinely interested in knowing about all religions. “He reads Quran, Bible and Bhagavad Gita to know about them and gain knowledge. This does not mean that he has converted to one particular religion. He is an atheist leader and will continue to be so,” he added[7]. Sathya said that people use his name for their own benefits and we do not take this seriously.  ‘We cannot go behind everyone who uses Vaiko’s name,’ he added. According to Lazarus, Vaiko’s daughter and son in law who live in US are engaged in Christian evangelist work.

Vaiko converted, Lazaraus claimed, News Today 08-11-2017

Vaiko’s reply has not been straight to deny: However, Vaiko has refuted Lazarus’ claims, saying that he hasn’t converted. “I am not a Christian. I respect all religions and my daughter-in-law has a pooja room in which you can see images of all Gods,” he told The Hindu. It was a result of his over-enthusiasm. It’s me and my brother who regularly contribute to the maintenance of the Vinayagar temple in my village,” he further said. He need not explain in this way apologetically, instead of refuting directly. Vaiko said that he had taken up the issue with Lazarus himself as such statements could have serious consequences[8]. He clarified that his daughter had married a Christian and there was no truth in the claim of Mr. Lazarus about others[9]. In Tamil media, he reportedly said that the speech of Lazarus would affect the political condition of the southern districts. So can Vaiko claim that even after becoming a Christian, instead of telling about her, why he says, that, . “……….my daughter-in-law has a pooja room in which you can see images of all Gods,”? Vaiko has been an open supporter of LTTE and had also made a trip to Eelam at the height of the LTTE’s war with Sri Lankan Army which has landed him into a lot of trouble over the years. He was arrested in 2010 for a sedition case filed by DMK. The crypto Christians are as dangerous as the false evangelists spreading satanic news and corrupting the Indian society.

Vaiko converted, Lazaraus claimed, Satya Jyoti- 08-11-2017

Vaiko’s pro-Christian activities and support: In July 2017, Vaiko led MDMK and PMK objected to keeping engraved Bhagawat Gita alongwith the wooden statue of Abdul Kalam playing veena in Kalam Memorial constructed by the Defense Research and Development Agency[10]. Vaiko insisted that Gita should be replaced with Tirukkural. Ironically giving all details, Deepak Aswale concludes that it seems the controversy over communal politics and Vaiko is certainly not coming to end[11]. Vaiko had not only brought a private member’s bill in parliament to give reservation for Dalit Christians[12], but also been campaining for the cause[13]. With his collegue Thiruma also he has bee doing that, though, legally, it is not possible[14]. Thus, knowingly why he has bee doing such propaganda has been intriguing. Here, the double-game of all the Christian missionaries, dalit groups, secular politicians, atheist grups etc., as such reservation is legally impossible, as the Presidential Order 1950 is meant for Hindus.

© Vedaprakash


Vaiko converted, Lazaraus claimed, Tamil paper- 08-11-2017

[1] Asianet Newsable, Lazarus claims Vaiko converted to Christianity. Is it true?, By Team Asianet Newsable | 09:25 AM November 08, 2017.


[3] His real name is Shanmugasundaram of Pudukottai. Rajan later became a full time Christian preacher since 1988 and since then has stopped acting in movies and dramas. His wife Pushpalatha is a Catholic by birth. Following Rajan’s conversion, his family too is serving full time Ministry.

[4] Shankar and his gang, consisting of his younger brother Auto Mohan and associates Eldin and Shivaji, as well as Jayavelu, Rajaraman, Ravi, Palani and Paramasivam, were found guilty of six murders, committed over a period of two years in 1988–1989. Shankar’s trial completed by the Chengalpattu sessions court He was sentenced to death along with two of his associates, Eldin and Shivaji, on May 31, 1991. Auto Shankar was hanged in Salem Central Prison.


[6] NewsToday, Vaiko denies converting into Christianity, NT Bureau, November 8, 2017.


[8] The Hindu, MDMK chief denies claims of conversion, B. Kolappan, Chennai, November 08, 2017 00:24 IST; Updated: November 08, 2017 08:05 IST;


[10] SatyaVijay, Has MDMK leader Vaiyapuri Gopalsamy (aka Vaiko) embraced christianity, by Deepa Aswale, November 7, 2017.



[13] Deccan Chronicle, There is a silent wave among people yearning for a change: Thol Thirumavalavan, Published May 5, 2016, 6:37 am IST; Updated May 5, 2016, 6:37 am IST



Black magic, transfer of spirit and all sorceries carried on in the Land of Dravidanadu, where Periyar was born (1)

March 28, 2017

Black magic, transfer of spirit and all sorceries carried on in the Land of Dravidanadu, where Periyar was born (1)


The Dravidian totalitarian and rationalistic rule during 1960-70s: In Tamilnadu, the Dravidian politicians used to claim about their “rational atheism”, “analytical wisdom” and so on, but in actual life, most of them have been God-believers worshipping God stealthily or by proxy i.e., through their mothers, wives, sisters and daughters. Some of them used to worship gods stealthily in their houses also with puja rooms. However, they say that “I am an atheist, but, I do not interfere with the belief of our family members”. How then, they could interfere with belief of crores of people of Tamilnadu? In public and platform, they pour abuses with the worst filthy language on Hindu religion, Gods and Goddesses and practices that no woman could bear. Yet, they have earned the titles of “Periyar” [big / great person among others or all], “Aringnar” [the only person who knows all], “Kalainjar” [the person who has been expert in all arts / subjects] and so on! Thus, the superiority complex that has been working in their mind set, makes others always to listen to them, accept what they say and none should or could ask any question. During the 1960s, if anybody would question them would be thrashed down.

 DK celebrated Ravana Leela in 1974

During the LPG regime / Internet age, questioning started: This is the way, they have been reigning supreme for the last 60 years. Only their views made public and circulated authoritatively[1]. However, when, internet came, the people started understanding their ambiguous dogma, hollow philosophy and dubious ideology of these groups. The youngsters could easily understand their selective, biased and pre-conceived propaganda carried against one particular religion i.e, Hindu religion[2]. As a ruler, the Dravidian or atheist Chief Minister has to administer and perform his duties as per the Constitutional and other statutory provisions treating all believers. However, in the case of Hindu religion, temples, temple administration, lease and rental of temple and mutt properties, conduct of rituals, rites and ceremonies, they interfered and spoiled many times. Though, the recent past is suppressed, the beating of Rama with chappals and other incidences make the youngsters to realize the duplicity of the Dravidian protagonists. The ganging up of splinter groups of Communists, anti-Hindu ideologists, particularly the Christian and Muslim groups joining them raise questions and they have understood that it is only anti-Hindu and secular or “Paguttaravi”, as being claimed. Under such circumstances, the recent happenings in Tamilnadu exposes their another ugly face of them.

 DK celebrated Ravana Leela in 1974- burned

Annadurai suddely died in 1969: C. N. Annadurai from high caste Mudaliar community was in power during the period 1967 – 1969. However, he fell ill due to excessive usage of tobacco substances. In September 1968 Annadurai went to New York for medical treatment and admitted in the hospital. After diagnosis, it was found out that there was malignant growth in his gullet and hence he was operated for Cancer in the gullet at the Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center. He returned to Chennai in November 1968 and continued to address several official functions against medical advice. His health deteriorated further and he died suddenly on 3 February 1969 within three months returning from USA after sugery and treatment. His cancer was attributed to his habit of chewing tobacco. However, some of the family members doubted about his sudden death. When Karunanidhi immediately took over as CM, people resented about his haste action.  They questioned why the senior pontiff Sri Chandrasekhara Saraswati of Kanchi Mutt wore spectacles as to why God could not have rectified his eyesight without glasses. But, here, none questioned as to why the science allowed man to die in that way in spite of the treatment etc. Later, MGR was also subjected to similar conditions. M. R. Radha attempted to kill MGR (on January 12, 1967), of course, he was not in power. After becoming CM, he was also not having proper health (in 1983 kidney problem developed), admitted to Brooklyn hospital US, returned after kidney transplant on February 4, 1985, but had to get treatment again and again in US and died on December 24, 1987.

Fire walk by the DK

Dravidian brand of astrologers, predictors and magicians: When the DMK came to power, the first thing, they did was to legalize the marriages performed under the “Pakuthtarivi” / “Suyamariyadhai” categories, as such marriages were held null and void in the courts. The rationalism did not work with the scientific judiciary system. Thus, they became cautious in dealing with social issues. The Dravidian politicias have been interested in astrology, auspicious time and date, black magic and all sorts of such superstitious practices, irrational rites and credulous rituals. Though, they denounce everything in public, in private, they practiced and hence their brand of Dravidian astrologers, predicting experts and magicians have been developed in due course and they have to keep the secrets in person, not to tell anybody in public and carry on their business, to safeguard their interests. That is why Karunanidhi used to hesitate to enter the Brahadheswarar temple, but wear yellow shwal as per the advice of his “asthana jyodhidar”, court / personal astrologer. Under such circumstances, the current events are to be analyzed.

Dravida fire-pot imitating

The antics, gimmicks and counter-rituals of of Dravida Kazhagam and allied groups: The Dravidar Kazhagam used to play gimmicks by imitating the  ritual of coconut breaking, fasting during eclipses, firewalk, carrying pots of burning coal, spiking one’s tongue and body with iron hooks, the concept of auspicious time, astrology, palm reading etc[3]. Though, they used to criticize only Hindu religion for the so-called “ritualism”[4], they close eyes, when they themselves follow such “ritualistic” practices, i.e, respecting the statues of EVR, Maniammai, celebrating birth and death days, garlanding and showering the idols with flowers. However, they never reenact the “crucifixion” of the Christians and bleeding beatings of “Shia Muslims” exposing their hypocrisy. Again, when Jayalalita was in hospital, the followers carried on all devoted rituals and rites praying all gods to save her. Incidentally, they were carried on in the most “secular” way, in the sense, Christians and Muslims have also participated. Therefore, tactfully, the DK groups kept silence to prove their ideology!

Was black magiv involved inn the death of Amma

Was Jayalalita died because of black magic?: The Daily Mail, UK carried a news item as follows[5]: “A leading astro guru in Chennai has said that Tamil Nadu chief minister J Jayalalithaa is a victim of black magic which has left her hospitalised since September, 2017. Not willing to identify himself for security reasons, the spiritual guru said Jayalalithaa has suffered from bad health because she has too many rivals. “It’s not just people from the rival party (DMK) who have spent huge money on tantriks to damage Jayalalithaa’s health. “I have no hesitation in saying that she has detractors even within her own party (AIADMK) who wanted to see her suffer,” he said. News on the health condition of Jayalalithaa is being kept a top secret. She is admitted in Apollo hospital in Chennai. Apart from a team of in-house specialists, doctors from the AIIMS New Delhi and a critical care specialist from London, are also involved in ensuring the CM is now stable. The astro guru also said it was quite possible Jayalalithaa’s arch rival M Karunanidhi could also be suffering from bad health due to tantrik spells. “Rivalry in political circles is very common and it would be wrong to say only one political party indulges in black magic and sorcery. This is noholds barred…,” he said”.

Was black magiv involved inn the death of Amma-2

The position and condition when Jaya was not feeling well (September to December 2016): What we can understand from this, are the following points[6]:

  1. Not willing to identify himself for security reasons, the spiritual guru said Jayalalithaa has suffered from bad health because she has too many rivals.
  2. “It’s not just people from the rival party (DMK) who have spent huge money on tantriks to damage Jayalalithaa’s health.
  3. “I have no hesitation in saying that she has detractors even within her own party (AIADMK) who wanted to see her suffer,” he said.
  4. News on the health condition of Jayalalithaa was being kept a top secret.

Thus, the nexus between the Dravidian politicians and the tantriks came out publically in the media. Ironically, none of the Dravidian ideologists like K. Veeramani, Kali Pungundran, “Viduthalai” Rajendran, Kolattur Mani and others refuted this, but, kept quite. Whom they were meeting, how the money paid, where the rituals taking place – the details – nothing known or revealed to anybody. Under such circumstances, the black magic affairs of one Karthikeyan came just after the death of Jayalalitha on 05-12-2016.

© Vedaprakash


[1] In 1956 August first, Dravidia Kazhagam asked the volunteers to bum pictures of Lord Rama as the organization considered Ramayana as anti-women and anti lower castes etc. one Dravidia Kazhagam leader in the name of Thiruvarur Thangarajan wrote a new version of Ramayana way Rama was portrayed as a villain. The Dravidia Kazhagam film star M.R. Radha staged the play throughout the state. The Government led by the Chief Minister Kamaraj immediately banned the play but Dravidia Kazhagam after obtaining court’s pem1ission staged the play in selected towns.

[2]  At the instigation of Thiru E. V. Ramaswami Naicker, the Leader of Dravida Kazhagam, several tableaus depicting the picture of Gods Rama and Muruga were being beaten by a chappal in a procession held at Salem on 23rd and 24th January 1971. When one individual printed the photos of the procession, the DMK government banned and seized the posters.  The Government of Tamil Nadu issued a Notification G. O. Ms. No. 491 Home dated 12-2-1971 directing the posters to be forfeited to the Government on the ground that the said posters contained matters which promote or intend to promote the feelings of enmity and hatred between different classes of citizens of India or which is deliberately or maliciously intended to outrage the religious feelings of any such class by insulting the religion or the religious feelings of that class.

Madras High Court – Chinna Annamalai vs The State Of Tamil Nadu on 24 February, 1971; Equivalent citations: AIR 1971 Mad 448, 1971 CriLJ 1569, (1971) IIMLJ 158; Author: K Reddy; Bench: K Reddy, Ganesan, Maharajan.

[3] Frontline, Going backward, R. Krishnakumar in Thiruvananthapuram and In Dravidian land, R. Ilangovan in Chennai in Frontline, Print edition : October 4, 2013.


[5] Daily Mail, ‘Her enemies are making her suffer’: Top Astro Guru says CM Jayalalithaa is a victim of BLACK MAGIC, By MAIL TODAY BUREAU, PUBLISHED: 23:52 BST, 26 October 2016 | UPDATED: 00:16 BST, 27 October 2016