Posts Tagged ‘சரித்திரக் கால அட்டவணை’

Karunanidhi way of Meddling with Chronology and History – I

January 17, 2010

Karunanidhi way of Meddling with Chronology and History


Traditional names of Tamil calendar knocked off[1]: All official communications will henceforth avoid the 60 names given to the Tamil years. Instead, they will merely give the year in terms of ‘Thiruvalluvar era’. The order follows another controversial step that the government had taken recently when it changed the Tamil New Year from the first day of the month of Chithirai (mid-April) to the first day of Thai, also celebrated as Pongal, the Tamil harvest festival (mid-January). A government order issued early this month by the Personnel and Administrative Reforms Department has instructed all departments, including collectors and district judges, not to mention the present Tamil year Sarvajit in government orders, official letters, communications, and other publications. And in future, all departments have been told not to mention the 60-years in the Tamil calendar, from Prabava to Akshaya at any time in future. Only the Tamil month, date and Thiruvalluvar year should be mentioned alongside the Christian year, the order says. The 60-year cycle, in which each year has a name, is sequenced in the traditional Tamil almanac (panchangam). Interestingly, the names of the years in the Tamil calendar are in Sanskrit. And this is what seems to have irked Dravidian patriarch and chief minister M Karunanidhi. “Is it rational to take refuge in the age old panchangam?” Karunanidhi had asked in a recent poem when there was a debate among Tamils on the rationale behind shifting of Tamil New Year. Enquiry with Tamil scholars reveal that the Tamil months and days find reference in Tholkappiam and Sangam literature but the names of 60-years have no reference in Tamil texts anywhere. “The non-Tamil names of the years are not found in the same sequence in any of the North Indian calendars,’’ say officials in Tamil Development Department. Besides, the confusion over the occurrence of an event in a given year, say, Sarvajit, cannot be avoided as there would be more than one Sarvajit years in a century, officials point out. By numbering every year under the Thiruvalluvar era, like the Christian era, it will be easy to relate to a particular year without any confusion, officials said, explaining the rationale behind the order. For instance, this year is Thiruvalluvar year 2039. The era has been named after the ancient saint-poet and author of the Thirukkural. However, the Dravidian leader is clear that this is not the place for Aryans. In the same poem, he had questioned the validity of giving such names for the years. “I am not against those who want to uphold Aryan values, but I will not allow anyone to stand in the way of my objective of giving importance to the kural-based Tamil era,” he said. Thus, it is imperative to analyse the issue and find out the truth.

Karunanidhi carries on the British legacy: Many times, researchers, social-analysts, political-forecasters, religious-prophets assert that enemies need not come from outside, but they are created within themselves or in a particular society or nation by others, so that they carry out and fulfil their expected or anticipated acts. Thus, the British sowed the seeds of unhistorical hypotheses and theories of Aryans and Dravidians and other blabbering[2]. In Indian historical tradition, there had never been such mention about two different races existing and fighting with each other always in the ancient Bharat. In fact, the Sangam literature mention about “Aryans”, but no whisper about “Dravidians”.  In fact, such mentioned “Aryans” were never considered or treated as coming from outside Bharat, but people of part of Bharat. Though historians have accepted that there were neither Aryans nor Dravidians and the AIT is a myth[3], the only creed on the earth believes, nurtures and carries it have been the Dravidian groups of all sorts. They still believe in race, racism, racialism, blood and other pseudo-scientific and discarded race hypotheses and theories[4]. Ironically, though they carry on and survive on such idiotic, unhistorical and anti-human belief and doctrines and dogmas, the westerners support them directly and indirectly[5]. Karunanidhi and others of the Black Paryivar have been always talking, discussing and writing only in terms of racist language inciting hatred among the people.

Recently, the acts of Karunanidhgi reveal a single point agenda – oppose everything that is Hindu. It is very open, perhaps, as his utterances and actions prove. Starting with his blasphemous attack on Rama, his anti-Hindu tirade has increased with aggressive geometrical progression and astronomical proportions. The recent one being interfering with the celebration of Tamil New Year’s Day by forcing temples not to follow the Pancangam and all. This is blatant interference of the government with the practice of crores of believers of the country and he has no locus standi to do that. As the British tried to destroy or suppress the Kali Era, Karunanidhi (b.1924) is trying to bury the glorious past of the Tamils under the guise of opposing Sanskrit and Hindu calendar, which is totally incorrect. In fact, people have forgotten his own appreciation of such 60-year cycle incorporating in his poem (for details see below). The DK and other Black Parivar has been evidently pressurising him to do such nonsensical acts of meddling with history and chronology of the Tamils. It is evident that the advisers or the propounders that Tamil literature had no reference to sixty-year cycle have no basic knowledge of Indian Tamil tradition, astronomy and history as explained below.

Sowiyanukkup Piragu Intha Sadharanan: C. N. Annadurai (1909-1969) had a name “Sowmiyan”. As he died in 1969, he came to power and at that time, he composed a song, “Sowiyanukkup Piragu Intha Sadharanan” came for ruling! At that time, the Government AIR / DD used to broadcast the New Year poem recital by VIPs and others. Karunanidhi composed a poem and recited in his usual way. Annadurai had a pen name “Sowmiyan”. Ironically or incidentally, he died in the year “Sowmiya”! If you go through the list of 60 years, the year Sowmiya precedes Sadharana. When Annadurai died in the Sowmiya Andu (1969-70), Karunanidhi became CM in the Sadharana Andu (1970-71). Making it figuratively, he composed the lines that, “Sowiyanukkup Piragu Intha Sadharanan” came to rule! What happened to his ideology at that time? He did not think about Tiruvalluvar Andu at that time, but gleefully singing song as mentioned. How is that the years which were acceptable to him 38 years back became suddenly anathema? As a CM also, he did not bother to remove such names and not to use such 60 years – starting with Prabhava and ending with Akshaya! Is it not shame to call himself so as Sadharanan and his predecessor-mentor as Sowmiyan? Thus, it is evident that something happened to him or controlling him to act like this.

Can any Era be introduced just like that? In the history of humankind, era is introduced, because of the good acts of a person on his capacity as a master, teacher, ruler, king, empire and so on, that too, buy the beloved people. Era has not been just age of reason, epoch of achievement, period of conquests or time of wisdom, but it is human past recorded in the memory and passed on to the progeny for practice. It is connected with chronology of people to be recorded for history. Chronology and history are connected, though the methods may differ in the respective fields because of human bias. Thus, history can be meddled with differing historiographical methods, but chronology cannot be meddled, even if meddled, such meddling would get exposed immediately. Chronology is a combination of method applied using mathematics, astronomy, cosmology and geology. At one side, it is the study of time, time measurement and time recording techniques, but at the other side, the time recording of humanity, human activity and human achievements also.

The cognition and calculation of day and night, observed solar and lunar effects and movements, vernal equinoxes, periodic rotation of planets, asterism, zodiac, and calendar – all are involved in it. Man has observed such events and recorded with diligence over period of time and therefore, the past astronomical recordings cannot be brushed aside, unless, astronomically and scientifically something is proved wrong in such past observations and recordings. In fact, such exercise was carried out then and there, as could be seen from the criticism of methods of one astronomer by another. The correction carried on has been an accepted standard, it such corrective methodology is aimed at perfection of time recording. So if any era is introduced, the introducer takes all factors into consideration. It is not just like insertion of one month each in ten-month calendar making twelve-month calendar.

Just look at the names of the months now we follow: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, and December. Scholars have pointed out September, October, November, and December clearly point to – seventh month (sapta = seven), eighth month (octa = eight), ninth month (nava = nine), tenth month (dasa = ten). The westerners claim that the months July and August have been the intruders because of Julius Caesar[8] and August Caesar[9]. So an intelligent student can ask what happened to the first to sixth months? Why their names were changed? Could they be known as Ekamber, Dwiamber, Triamber, Caturambar, Panchamber, Hastamber?[10] Just by introducing two months, they cannot adjust the calendar. Then, we are explained that not only, they inserted two more months in the ten-month calendar, but to show off their superiority, they made their months with maximum days i.e, 31 days! If Julius Caesar could have done it, why not by August Caesar? And how it was done? Just by grabbing days from other months[11]. It appears so wonderful, so astronomical and so scientific. Thus, we follow the wonderful calendar throughout the world, as forced by the colonial rulers.

Chronology – Its relation to Astronomy and Astrology: It is said that the system of reckoning time and hence that of historical events has been a modern concept, but it is modern even among the westerners. Different westerners or Europeans were using different systems of time reckoning in their respective countries based on the prevalent culture, tradition and heritage. Suddenly, they were stunned to receive astronomical tables received from

Gregorian calendar: Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585), who decreed in 1582 a calendar with fasts and feasts to be adopted by the Roman Catholics, heavily depended on the Indian astronomical tables. However, it (the Catholic calendar) contained many inaccuracies: 1.      The year 1582 had only 355 days.2.      The concept of leap year. 1600 was made leap year, but not 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, 2300 and so on.3.      There was no leap year between 1896 and 1904, and 1900 was not considered as a leap year.4.      Ten days were dropped and 5th October 1582 was called 15th October.5.      The error accumulation is one day in about 3,320 years.

Though, the Greek Church and Protestant nations did not recognize and follow it, in 1752,
England fall in line by calling 3rd September as 14th! The year was made commence on January 1st instead of March 25th! In fact, the chronologization of events based on the new calendar has created many problems. They started mentioning the dates followed by O.S (Old System) and N.S (New System). For example, the date of birth of Newton himself was subjected to dispute – Dec.25, 1642 O.S or January 4, 1643 N.S!

Here, the Church played a crucial role in imposing Gregorian Calendar (1582) on the Christian
States to be followed for political and civil purposes. Then came James Ussher (1581-1656), the famous Christian chronologer. He went to England in 1640 and took part in the ecclesiastical questions raised in the Long Parliament[14]. He was the first to attempt the Biblical chronology and declared that the God, Jehovah created the Universe and the world on October 23, 4004 BCE! All the Church and other historians faithfully followed his works Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates (1639) and The Annals of the World (1658). Accordingly, almanacs, annals erc., were compiled with the new Calendar. The Christian scholars, historians or scientists had strong belief that the Ussher’s system should be adhered strictly. The essential of the biblical version of creation and the world’s history was not seriously questioned during the 18th century[15]. An almanac is a year book of dates and tables, giving a calendar of days and months, ecclesiastical fasts and feasts, the age of the moon, the tides, and the exact time of sun’s rising and setting etc. The name almanac is derived from al-manah in Arabic, as the Europeans obtained such tables from the Arabs, but the Arabs, in fact got them from Indians.  Al manah means the sundial, because, all the measurements of time were made principally associated with the Sun. This is nothing but panchangam used in India since time immemorial (the extant work Vedanga Jyotisa of Lagada c.1400 BCE[16]). According to the claim of westerners, Regiomontanus was the fist-published almanac in Latin in 1475. When this has been the history of Panchangam, Karunanidhi criticizes it with his poetry!

How Karunanidhi did it? Does Karunanidhi know any astronomy? Does he have any committee of astronomers or such experts? How then, he simply could have done away with the “sixty year” cycle reckoning of years? As fanatic Dravidians do not like Sanskrit named months, just like that they can be removed? But, could they change the past chronology and the history connected with it? He is considered as an authority in Tamil literature. So at least, he could have gone into the Sangam literature to find out what era, they followed, what calendar, zodiac or year-cycle followed etc., instead of simply changing the starting of Tamil year or discarding the sixty-cycle notation.

Did the People of Tamizhagam Followed a Jupiter Cycle? The discussion about the Zodiac based on Inthimai or Inthinai Zodiac points to a possibility that the people of Tamizhagam might have followed a Jupiter cycle for the calculation and recording time and events[17]. Here, taking a cue from the Sangam literature, the symbolism used, charts were prepared with the Inthinai mentioned. The literary references are converted into numbers. Thus, time of a day is divided into five equal parts = 24 / 5 = 4.8 hours, a year is divided into five parts = 12 / 5 = 2.4 months per division and thus, the zodiac is divided into 5 parts, thus 360 / 5 = 720. 1.      The number 72 appears to be significant in the context. 2.      For the precession of the equinoxes to cover up one degree in the zodiac, Jupiter takes 72 years approximately. 3.      It has 12 satellites. 4.      There are two Jupiter cycles one consisting of 60 years and another 12 years. The sixty year cycle is used throughout
India since the days of Vedic period (Vedanta Jyotisha dated to c.1400 BCE). 5.      This is the time taken by Jupiter in passing one sign of zodiac and also known as Jovian year.

Surya Siddhanta[18], the ancient astronomical work extant defines and the method of calculation of Jupiter cycle:“Multiply by 12 the past Jupiter revolutions of Jupiter, add the signs of the current revolution, add and divide by sixty; the remainder marks the year of Jupiter’s cycle, counting from Vijaya [Surya Siddhanta – I.55].In Vaishaka etc., a conjunction (yoga) in the dark half-month (krishna), on the 15th lunar day (thithi), determines in like manner the years Karttika etc., of Jupiter, from his helical setting (asta) and rising (udaya) [Surya Siddhanta – XIV.17]”.The first verse clearly points to the existence of sixty year cycle that is still followed throughout India. The second quoted verse points to the Skanda Shasthi festival / birth of Viskhaka / Karttikeya. Then what is the relation between the 60 year cycle and 12 year cycle? Mathematically, it is 60 / 12 = 5.

If in any year, the helical setting of Jupiter takes place in the month Vaishaka, then the asterism with which the moon is found to be in the conjunction at the end of that month, which will be, of course, the asterism of the year, which is Krittika. Thus, here, the relation between Vaishaka and Karttika is explained. Therefore, the connecting factor of these two months and as well as stars is Muruga and his worship.

Astronomically, the connecting factor of two Jupiter cycle is 5 and it is Inthinai-Zodiac[19]. Therefore, the poet or poets who had been familiar with the three important aspects – Surya Siddhanta / Vedic Astronomy, myth of Vaishaka and Karttika and Inthinai-Zodiac and of course Tamil (perhaps Sanskrit too) could have only conceived such Zodiac and presented such astronomical myth through his / their poetics and poetry. And this historical process could have taken place only about the period in which the Tamizhagam was reigning supreme in all aspects. The following is a note from the D.  C. Sircar book[20].

Jupiter Cycle of sixtry years[21]: The duration of Jupiter’s stay in a particular zodiacal sign is called Jupiter’s year which lasts for 361 days, 2 ghatikas or dandas and 3 palas. This year is thus shorter than the solar year by 4 days, 13 ghatikas or dandas and 26 palas. That is why one Jupiter’s year becomes suppressed in 85 solar years.

There is a name for each one of the 60 years of Jupiter’s cycle, and the years are mentioned by their names. But the 60 names are counted in North and
South India in two different orders.

The sixty years of Jupiter’s cycle are as follows:

1.      Prabhava2.      Vibhava3.      Sukla4.      Pramoda

5.      Prajapati

6.      Angiras

7.      Srimukha

8.      Bhava9.      Yuvan

10.  Dhatr

11.  Isvara

12.  Bahudhanya

13.  Pramathin

14.  Vikrama

15.  Vrsa

16.  Citrabhanu

17.  Subhanu

18.  Tarana

19.  Parthiva

20.  Vyaya

21.  Sarvajit22.  Sarvadharani23.  Virodhin24.  Vikrit

25.  Khara

26.  Nandana

27.  Vijaya

28.  Jaya

29.  Manmatha

30.  Durmukha

31.  Hemalamba

32.  Vilambin

33.  Vikarin

34.  Sarvarin

35.  Plava

36.  Subhakri

37.  Sobhana

38.  Krodhin

39.  Visvasu

40.  Prabhava

41.  Plavanga42.  Kilaka43.  Saumya44.  Sadharana

45.  Virodhakri

t46.  Paridhavin

47.  Pramadin

48.  Ananda

49.  Raksasa

50.  Nala / Anala

51.  Pingala

52.  Kalayukta

53.  Siddharthin

54.  Raudra

55.  Durmati

56.  Dundhubhi

57.  Rudhirodgarin

58.  Raktaksa

59.  Krodhana

60.  Ksaya / Aksaya

Varahamihira applies the name Vijaya (No.27) to the first year of the Kaliyuga era while later writers like the author of the Jyotisatattva gives it as Prabhava (No. 1).in North India, Jupiter’s year is theoretically begins from the planet’s entry into a particular zodiacal sign, though in actual practice Caitrasudi 1 is regarded as its first day.

According to Varahamihira[22], to find out the name of a particular Saka year after the North Indian system, one has to multiply the number expired Saka year by 11 and the product again by 4;  to the product 8589 has to be added, and the sum has to be divided by 3750; the quotient has then to be added to the number of the Saka year and the product has to be divided again by 60. The remainder thus received would be the number of the expired year in the cycle beginning with Prabhava[23].

In South India, Jupiter’s year is regarded as the same as the solar year. The first year of the Kali era is Pramathin (No. 13), and the year is taken to begin with from Caitra-sudi 1.

The rule for finding out the name of a particular Saka year according to Zsouth Indian cycle of Jupiter is as follows: 12 has to be added to the number of the expired Saka year; the sum has to be divided by 60; the remainder would be the number of the current year of the cycle beginning from Prabhava. Another rule is as follows: 12 has to be added to the number of the expired Kali year; then the sum has to be divided by 60 and the remainder would be the number of the year of the cycle beginning with Prabhava[24].

The names of the years according to Jupiter’s 60-year cycle are only occasionally met with the records of North India. But they are very popular in the South India even today. It was formerly believed that the earliest epigraph mentioning such a name is the Mahakuta pillar inscription of Calukya Mangalesa (597-610 CE) of Badami, dated in the year Siddharth (Sidharthin)[25]. But frecently the name of the cyclic year Vijaya has been traced in two Nagarjunakonda inscriptions, one of the time of the Iksvaku king Virapurusadatta (second half of the third century CE) and another of his son Ehuvala Santamula (close of the 3rd and early part of the 4th century)[26]. Vijaya was originally the first year of the Cycle.

Thus, it is clear that the 60-cycle year with their names have been so popular among the
South India than North India. As the ancient Tamils must have been using such cycle in consistent with the Inthinai Zodiac, such tradition cannot be suppressed because of the present misguided fanaticism and chauvinism. Actually, under vthe guise of promoting Tamil, the actual Tamil culture is destroyed, that too, meddling with the historical evidences, which cannot be allowed. Ironically, the historians, who very often make hue and cry, keep quiet for Karu’s meddling with chronology. Romila Thapar, who came to defend Karu by writing two articles one in “The Hindu” and another EPW keeps quiet.

How can a ruler go against the people? Karnanidhi has been given mandate for all the people of Tamilnadu and he cannot go against the tradition, culture, heritage and civilization of Tamilnadu, India. If Karunanidhi wants that he wants to be a Dravidian fascist, Tamil fanatic, linguistic chauvinist, blatant racist, rabid communalist etc., that is entirely different from the person ruling TN as CM. But, very often, he forgets this and behaves like Karunanidhi instead of CM of TN. First he ordered that Tamil new year’s day should not be celebrated on April 14th in the sense that Panchangam should not be read in the temples on that day. Now, he passes another order that the sixty-year notation would be discarded and such named-years should not be used in the government documents etc. This is Hitlerism aided and abetted by his group of Goebbelism. Definitely, he has exceeded the Constitutional, legal and democratic limits.

The Calendar Reform Committee under Government of India appointed in November 1952 had gone into the details of prevalent divergences and introduced a national calendar[27] wef March 22, 1957.  Therefore, the introduction of Tiruvalluvar Andu may serve the sentiments of the Tamil chauvinists, but it has no historical or astronomical basis. None could produce any historical document, epigraph or any other evidence to this effect. Mere sentiments are alone not enough to introduce an era or epoch. No doubt, every one respects the Great Tamil Poet Tiruvalluvar, but, with him such controversy need not be carried on. Therefore, misusing the official power, that too, with anti-Hindu, anti-national ideology, they cannot bugle with everything.



[1] B. Arvind Kumar, Traditional names of Tamil calendar knocked off, Times of India, April 28, 2008, Chennai edition, p.5.

[2] Now there have been a lot of source materials available and there is no doubt about the British who gave a last kick to Indians, before giving the so-called Independence.Max Mueller has long back withdrew his theory.Even Ambedkar in his books has refuted the Aryan-Dravidian theories.Leon Poliakov, The Aryan myth, Chapter.9, The Quest for the new Adam, London, 1974. The author gives the background of the creation of “Aryan myth” and implications.

[3] Even Romila Thapar has confessed and other Marxists in their own way to save their ideology.

[4] The racist views, speeches and writings of the Dravidian ideologists, protagonists and politicians even today, as is revealed through print and electronic media has been a standing evidence but glaring contradiction in the democratic and secular polity of India.

[5] Take the American and European researchers, they unwittingly or wittingly accommodate and encourage their racist, racialist, communalist views and perhaps enjoy, as they are used to beat the Indians themselves again through their methodology.

Eugene Irshchick, Politics and social cionflicts in South Asia: The non-Brahmin movement and Tamil separatism, 1916-1929, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1969.

Marguerite Ross Barenett, The Politics of Cultural Nationalism: The DMK in Tamilnadu, South India, unpublished Ph.D dissertation, University of Chicago, 1972.

[6] Thousands of articles are available in Epigraphica Indica, Journal of Royal Asiatic Research, Indian Antiquary, Asiatic Researches etc.

B. L. Van der Warden, The Conjunction of 3102 B.C, Centarus, 1980, Vol.24, pp.117-131.

Kailash Chandra Varma, The Kali Era and Ignored Glimpses of Indian Antiquity, ABORI, Vol.LVII ” LVIII (Diamond Jubile), 1977-78, pp.1025-1047.

J. F. Fleet, The Kaliyuga Era of 3102 B.C, JRAS, pp.479-496; 675-698.

K. V. Ramakrishna Rao, Kali Era – The Lively Controversy Among the Western Scholars, Aryabhateeya’99, Thiruvananthapuram, 1999, p.16.

……………………….., Historicity, Astronomy and Kaliyuga, The proceedings of a seminar held at Chennai in October 2002 on Ancient History of India through Vedic Astronomy, ISIAC, Chennai, 2003, pp.44-57.

………………………..,Kali Era as Gleaned from the Literary and Epigraphical Evidences, Ibid, pp.58-70.

[7] B. Arvind Kumar, Traditional names of Tamil calendar knocked off, Times of India, April 28, 2008, Chennai edition, p.5.

Dinamalar, Implementation of Tiruvalluvar Year and no more “Sarvadhari, April 28, 2008, Chennai edition, p.5.

[8] He is credited with introduction of one calendar in 45 BCE.Keith Gordon Irwin, The Circle of Days: Measurement of Time, A Ladder Publication, 1965, USA, pp.56-58.

[9] Ibid, pp.58-62.

[10] The ten-month year had Martius, Aprilis, Marius, Iunius, Quintilis (five), Sextilis (six), September, October, November and December.

[11] Thus, both months July and August have 31 days!

[12] John Playfair, Some Remarks on the Astronomy of Brahmins, in  Edinburgh Review, U. K, 1789. He has discussed about the astronomical tables taken away from India and Siam respectively by the Jesuit missionaries to Europe, their study by the European scientists and astronomers pointing to an epoch starting with 3102 BCE, the Kaliuyuga.

[13] K. V. Ramakrishna Rao, European Scientists: Indian Chronology and Historiography, XXth Session of South Indian History Congress held at Tiruvananthapuram from Feb.25-27, 2002.

……………………………………….., The Interest of European Scientists  in Indian Chronology and Historiography, UGC Seminar on Situating Historical Writings in Post-Independence India (Abstracts volume), held at Bharathidasan University on March 23 ” 23, 2002, Tiruchirappalli, pp.16-17.

………………………………….….., The Interest of European Scientists in Indian Calendar and Chronology, in Indian Calendar and Chronology (Seminar papers) held at Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad on August 9 ” 10, 2003, pp.1-20.

[14] The so-called Long Parliament discussed so many issues particularly, the eccelestical issues connected with science, astronomy etc.

[15] R. N. Stromberg, Religious Liberalism in Eighteenth-Century England, Oxford, 1954, pp.26-27.

[16] Vedanga Jyotisha authored by Laghadha has been the oldest astronomical extant text dated to c.1450 BCE with the internal evidences, which specifically talks about the 60-year cycle followed.Laghadha, Vedanga Jyotisha, Text with English translation published by the Indian
National Science Academy, New Delhi.

[17] K. V. Ramakrishna Rao, Zodiac and Murugan Worship, in ‘The Antiquity of Worship of Skanda-Karttikeya-Subramanya’, Bharatiya Itihasa Sankalana Samiti, Chennai, 2001.………………………………………., The Zodiac of the Tamils or the Zodiac Depicted in the Sangam Literature or Inthinai Zodiac of the ancient Tamils, a paper presented during the Tamilnadu History congress, Poondi College, Thanjavur, October 10-12, 2003.…………………………………….., The Worship of Murukan and the Zodiac and Mrukan, a paper presented at the Skanda-Muruga International Conference held at Malaysia, November 3-5, 2003.

[18] Surya Siddhanta has been the oldest Indian astronomical work dealing with many astronomical concepts, planetary theories, formulae, rules etc., ahead of others. Thus, the westerners tried to meddle with its dating. In short, they always try to prove that the Indians derived or borrowed or rather copied every thing from the Greeks, if not from the Babylonians, Egyptians and others.

[19] K. V. Ramakrishna Rao, Iraiyanar Agapporul Chronology – myth or Reality, a paper presented during the Tamilnadu History Congress, October 13-14, 2001, held at Chennai.

[20] D. C. Sircar, Indian Epigraphy, Motilal Banarasidas, New Delhi, 1996, pp.267-269.

[21]Ojha, Bharatiya Pracin Lipimala, pp.188-189.

[22] Brahatsamhita, VIII, 20.

[23] Surya Siddhanta – I.55 and Surya Siddhanta – XIV.17, as mentioned and discussed above. Thus, it is evident that Varaha Mihira was following the Surya Siddhanta. Incidentally, this proves the dating of Surya Siddhanta in later period is wrong.

[24] Same as above sl. No. 22.

[25] Indian Antiquary, Vol.XIX, p.18.

[26] Epigraphica Indica, XXXV, p.1 ff.

[27] S. K. Chatterjee, Indian Calendric System, Publications Divisions, Government of
India, New Delhi, 1998 (Saka 1920)